# 为什么要向人认错？（科普）

“这事是跑堂错”的知识，跑堂自己知道，那女人知道。瞪一眼跑堂，让跑堂也知道了她有这知识。这大家都有的知识，为什么跑堂道歉还要对她说一遍？多余吗？不！

惠施是战国时期政治家、逻辑学家和哲学家。庄子反驳惠施质疑如何得知“鱼之乐”的话很巧妙，他说：从你最早的问话中得知，你知道我有“鱼之乐”这个知识，问我从哪儿得来的这知识？我是在这儿看到的呀。表面上逻辑无懈可击。

【参考文献】

Vanderschraaf, Peter and Sillari, Giacomo, "Common Knowledge", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.),
http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/spr2009/entries/common-knowledge/

【公共知识的一种定义】

We can now define mutual and common knowledge as follows:

Definition
Let a set Ω of possible worlds together with a set of agents N be given.

1. The proposition that A is (first level or first order) mutual knowledge for the agents of N,K1N(A), is the set defined by

K 1 N (A) ≡ ∩ i N K i (A).

2. The proposition that A is mth level (or mth order) mutual knowledge among the agents of N,KmN(A), is defined recursively as the set

K m N (A) ≡ ∩ i N K i (Km−1N(A)).

3. The proposition that A is common knowledgeamong the agents of N,K*N(A), is defined as the set

 K * N (A) ≡ ∞∩ m=1 K m N (A).

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-826653-639066.html

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