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2018年第12周小麦文献推荐(3.24)

已有 2246 次阅读 2018-3-24 23:25 |系统分类:论文交流| 小麦, 基因组, 文献推荐

2018年第12周小麦文献推荐(3.24)

这一周文献很多,值得一读的文献也有几篇。

1 Genome editing of bread wheat using biolistic delivery of CRISPR/Cas9 in vitrotranscripts or ribonucleoproteins

In recent years, CRISPR/Cas9 has emerged as a powerful tool for improving crop traits. Conventional plant genome editing mainly relies on plasmid-carrying cassettes delivered by Agrobacterium or particle bombardment. Here, we describe DNA-free editing of bread wheat by delivering in vitro transcripts (IVTs) or ribonucleoprotein complexes (RNPs) of CRISPR/Cas9 by particle bombardment. This protocol serves as an extension of our previously published protocol on genome editing in bread wheat using CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids delivered by particle bombardment. The methods we describe not only eliminate random integration of CRISPR/Cas9 into genomic DNA, but also reduce off-target effects. In this protocol extension article, we present detailed protocols for preparation of IVTs and RNPs; validation by PCR/restriction enzyme (RE) and next-generation sequencing; delivery by biolistics; and recovery of mutants and identification of mutants by pooling methods and Sanger sequencing. To use these protocols, researchers should have basic skills and experience in molecular biology and biolistic transformation. By using these protocols, plants edited without the use of any foreign DNA can be generated and identified within 9–11 weeks.

2 Yield and grain weight responses to post-anthesis increases in maximum temperature under field grown wheat as modified by nitrogen supply

High-temperatures reduce yield of wheat and with global warming episodes of heat waves (only few days of high maximum temperatures) during grain filling will become more frequent. It has been recently reported that the magnitude of the yield penalties imposed by high temperatures under field conditions may interact with nitrogen (N) availability both in barley and maize. We determined, under field conditions, the penalties imposed by post-anthesis high-temperatures waves (increased maximum –but not minimum– temperatures during part of the grain filling period) on wheat yield under contrasting soil N supply during two consecutive years. The high temperature treatment was imposed for 10 d starting 10 d after anthesis by placing over the crops transparent polyethylene film (125 μm) mounted on wood structures of 1.5 m height above the ground. This high-temperature and the unheated controls were imposed on 5 modern and well adapted cultivars under contrasting N availabilities (376, 268 and 68 KgN ha−1). Averaged across N conditions, high-temperature treatments reduced yield by c. 1.5 Mg ha−1 (a loss of c. 17%) even though the treatment was rather mild in terms of different average temperature during grain filling. The magnitude of the loss was consistently shaped by the N condition in which the treatment was imposed: yield penalty produced by high-temperature increased from less than 1 to 2.6 Mg ha−1 (which represents losses from 10 to 25%) in parallel with the increased N supply. The penalties were related to both yield components (grain number and average grain weight) which also were more severely penalised under high than under low N supply. As episodes of high-temperature waves will become more frequent in the future the tools used to establish the needs of N fertilisation should be revised as the rates maximising yield (or gross margin) might induce higher sensitivities to these episodes. Also simulation models used to upscale physiological responses to regional or even global domains might need to be revised to include the effect of heat waves (which would be larger per °C increase than what is estimated from experiments increasing temperature during the whole day and over longer periods) as well as the interaction with N supply.

3 Identification and characterization of phenolic compounds extracted from barley husks by LC-MS and antioxidant activity in vitro

Phenolic compounds were extracted from Tunisian barley husks obtained through a pearling process, by using two different extraction solvents: acid treatment with sulfuric acid and alkaline delignification with sodium hydroxide. Their antioxidant properties in vitro were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging test and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). Antioxidants composition was evaluated with LC-MS analysis. Findings suggest that the best yields of crude extracts with high level of phenolic compounds exhibiting strong antioxidant activities were found after pre-hydrolysis and delignification step of barley husks. The lowest average total phenolic content found was 763.665 mg/100 g, presenting an EC50 value of 0.93 g/L, four higher antioxidant levels than BHA (0.24 g/L). All extracted fractions showed high contents of p-coumaric acid (≥491.189 mg/100 g), trans-ferulic acid (≥501.475 mg/100 g) and syringic acid (≥192.228 mg/100 g). These results contribute to enhancing the value of barley husks as a good source of natural antioxidants, which serve as new functional food ingredients and dietary supplements.

4 Improving water use efficiency and grain yield of winter wheat by optimizing irrigations in the North China Plain

Achieving the combination of high water use efficiency (WUE) and high yield is very important for the sustainable development of wheat production in the North China Plain (NCP). For this study, we investigated how to optimize timing of two irrigations to improve winter wheat grain yield and WUE under field conditions. No-irrigation after sowing (W0) as a control, and six irrigation treatments as follows: irrigation of 75 mm each at late tillering and booting (TB), at late tillering and anthesis (TA); at late tillering and medium milk (TM), at jointing and anthesis (JA), at jointing and medium milk (JM) and at booting and medium milk (BM). Experiments were conducted between the 2014–2016 growing seasons. In all the treatments, JA achieved the highest grain yield (9,267.6 kg ha−1) and WUE (20.2 kg ha−1 mm−1). Compared with TB, TA and TM, JA coordinated pre- and post-anthesis water use, reduced pre-anthesis and total evapotranspiration (ET), and increased post-anthesis water use amount and ratio; JA reduced biomass at anthesis, but optimized allocation of assimilation, increased spike partitioning index and maintained high fruiting efficiency, and thus obtained the highest grain number per m2(GN, 23.7 103 m−2). Meanwhile, JA optimized crop characteristics with appropriate leaf area index (LAI), delayed leaf senescence, extended grain filling duration by 1–3 days, then increased biomass post-anthesis and harvest index (HI). Compared with JM and BM, JA increased GN, biomass post-anthesis and grain yield as well. These results demonstrated that irrigation at jointing and anthesis could improve grain yield and WUE by increasing biomass post-anthesis, HI and GN. Therefore, we propose that under adequate soil moisture conditions before sowing, two irrigations at jointing and anthesis with 150 mm irrigation amount is the optimal limited irrigation practice for wheat production in NCP.

5 Integrated agronomic practices management improve yield and nitrogen balance in double cropping of winter wheat-summer maize

 

6 Tillage and residue management for long-term wheat-maize cropping in the North China Plain: I. Crop yield and integrated soil fertility index

Conservation tillage has been gaining increasing recognition for its role in improving soil quality and maintaining agricultural sustainability. This is the first in a series of papers describing the impacts of reduced/no-tillage with and without residue based on the field experiment in the North China Plain. The experiment was established in 2006 on a sandy loam soil and involved a winter wheat-summer maize rotation system per year. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of different conservation tillage systems on crop yield and soil fertility that was quantified by a minimum data set and integrated index. Soil samples were collected since 2011, and the stocks of soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), alkali-hydrolyzale nitrogen (AN), total phosphorus (TP), available phosphorus (AP), total potassium (TK) and available potassium (AK) were measured for each year as well as soil aggregates were fractionated for 2016. Compared to continuous tillage, the reduced/no-tillage, regardless of residue, significantly increased the macroaggregate mass and soil nutrient stocks at the 0–10 cm depth, while further improvements in these soil attributes apart from TK were observed at the 0–10 and 10–20 cm depths for residue returning relative to residue removing. The accumulations of soil nutrients were closely related to soil macroaggregation. The path analysis revealed that TN was the most important soil attribute to directly determine wheat and maize yields while other soil attributes apart for TK primarily made indirect contributions to the yields. The first two factors extracted using 8 soil attributes through factor analysis were selected as the integrated indicators for the minimum data set, and their integrated score was calculated to quantify soil fertility. It was found that reduced/no-tillage did not improved soil fertility at the 0–20 cm depth. Consequently, an average 6.9% decrease in wheat yield across all years was observed under no-tillage while reduced tillage only increased the yield in the first two years in a periodic reduced tillage event. No significant difference was observed for the mean maize yield among the three tillage regimes averaged across all years and residue managements. Wheat and maize yields were significantly correlated with the integrated score for soil fertility, and thus significant increases in grain yields of wheat and maize were observed for residue returning. It can be concluded that grain yields of wheat and maize within a given residue management practice were not significantly higher for reduced/no-tillage than continuous tillage, regardless of the effects of tillage on aggregates and soil nutrients.

7 Wheat miR9678 Affects Seed Germination by Generating Phased siRNAs and Modulating Abscisic Acid/Gibberellin Signaling

Seed germination is important for grain yield and quality and rapid, near-simultaneous germination helps in cultivation; however, cultivars that germinate too readily can undergo pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), which causes substantial losses in areas that tend to get rain around harvest time. Moreover, our knowledge of mechanisms regulating seed germination in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remains limited. In this study, we analyzed function of a wheat-specific microRNA 9678 (miR9678), which is specifically expressed in the scutellum of developing and germinating seeds. Overexpression of miR9678 delayed germination and improved resistance to PHS in wheat through reducing bioactive gibberellins (GAs) levels; miR9678 silencing enhanced germination rates. We provide evidence that miR9678 targets a long non-coding RNA(WSGAR)and triggers the generation of phased siRNA which play a role in the delay of seed germination. Finally, we found that abscisic acid (ABA) signaling proteins bind the promoter of miR9678 precursor and activate its expression, indicating that miR9678 affects germination by modulating the GA/ABA signaling.

8 Effect of sowing time and seeding rate on yield components and water use efficiency of winter wheat by regulating the growth redundancy and physiological traits of root and shoot

9 The activity of superoxide dismutases (SODs) at the early stages of wheat deetiolation

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Unbound tetrapyrroles, i.e. protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), chlorophyllide and chlorophylls, bring the risk of reactive oxygen species (ROS) being generated in the initial stages of angiosperm deetiolation due to inefficient usage of the excitation energy for photosynthetic photochemistry. We analyzed the activity of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves and at the beginning of their deetiolation. Mn-SOD and three isoforms of Cu/Zn-SODs were identified both in etiolated and greening leaves of Taestivum. Two Cu/Zn-SODs, denoted as II and III, were found in plastids. The activity of plastidic Cu/Zn-SOD isoforms as well as that of Mn-SOD correlated with cell aging along a monocot leaf, being the highest at leaf tips. Moreover, a high Pchlide content at leaf tips was observed. No correlation between SOD activity and the accumulation of photoactive Pchlide, i.e. Pchlide bound into ternary Pchlide:Pchlide oxidoreductase:NADPH complexes was found. Cu/Zn-SOD I showed the highest activity at the leaf base. A flash of light induced photoreduction of the photoactive Pchlide to chlorophyllide as well as an increase in all the SODs activity which occurred in a minute time-scale. In the case of seedlings that were deetiolated under continuous light of moderate intensity (100 μmol photons m-2 s-1), only some fluctuations in plastidic Cu/Zn-SODs and Mn-SOD within the first four hours of greening were noticed. The activity of SODs is discussed with respect to the assembly of tetrapyrroles within pigment-protein complexes, monitored by fluorescence spectroscopy at 77 K.

10 Fungicide and cultivar management of leaf spot diseases of winter wheat in western Canada

A complex of leaf spotting diseases [tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (Died.) Drechs.), the septoria complex (Zymoseptoria tritici (Desm.) Quaedvlieg & Crous and Parastagonospora nodorum (Berk.) Quaedvlieg, Verkley, & Crous ), spot blotch (Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoemaker), and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f.sp. tritici ém. Marchal)] are frequently observed on winter wheat in western Canada; however, there are few studies indicating varietal differences in reaction to these diseases or the benefit of fungicide application. To determine the benefit of varietal improvement, and multiple fungicide treatments and application timings, field experiments were conducted at six site-years in western Canada. Two cultivars varying in reaction to leaf spot diseases were used in combination with fungicide treatments. Disease severity ranged from trace to 64% of the combined flag and penultimate leaf area diseased, differed between cultivars, and was reduced from the check by some fungicide treatments. Yield improvement by fungicide treatment varied from 3.3 to 13.2% greater than the non-treated check. At two site-years, the split application of two half rates of fungicide resulted in the greatest yield; however, in both cases the yield benefit did not differ from a single application at the flag leaf growth stage. Cultivar selection and fungicide use under environments conducive to disease are beneficial components of an integrated leaf spot disease management program for winter wheat in western Canada.

11 First report of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot of wheat in Europe
12 Long-Term Irrigation Affects the Dynamics and Activity of the Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiome

13 Proteomic analysis of melatonin-mediated osmotic tolerance by improving energy metabolism and autophagy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Melatonin is known to play multiple roles in plant abiotic stress tolerance. However, its role in wheat has been rarely investigated. In this study, 25% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used to simulate osmotic stress, and wheat seeds and seedlings were treated with different concentrations of melatonin under PEG stress. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic techniques were used to identify the differentially accumulated proteins from melatonin-treated and non-treated seedlings. Seeding priming with melatonin significantly increased the germination rate, coleoptile length, and primary root number of wheat under PEG stress, as well as the fresh weight, dry weight, and water content of wheat seedlings. Under PEG stress, melatonin significantly improved reactive oxygen species homeostasis, as revealed by lower H2O2 and O 2 · content; and the expression of antioxidant enzymes at the transcription and translation levels was increased. Melatonin maintained seedling growth by improving photosynthetic rates and instantaneous and intrinsic water use efficiencies, as well as carbon fixation and starch synthesis at the protein level. Melatonin treatment significantly affected the expression of glycolytic proteins, including fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and enolase, and remarkably increased the expression of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide transporter and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding protein, thereby indirectly modulating electron transport in the respiratory chain. This indicated that melatonin improved energy production in PEG-stressed seedlings. Further, melatonin played a regulatory role in autophagy, protease expression, and ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation by significantly upregulating rab-related protein, fused signal recognition particle receptor, aspartyl protease, serine protease, ubiquitin-fold modifier 1, and ubiquitin at the mRNA or protein level. These findings suggested that melatonin might activate a metabolic cascade related to autophagy under PEG stress in wheat seedlings.

14 The wheat TabZIP2 transcription factor is activated by the nutrient starvation-responsive SnRK3/CIPK protein kinase

Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in the regulation of grain development and plant responses to abiotic stresses. We investigated the role and molecular mechanisms of function of the TabZIP2 gene isolated from drought-stressed wheat plants. Molecular characterisation of TabZIP2 and derived protein included analyses of gene expression and its target promoter, and the influence of interacting partners on the target promoter activation. Two interacting partners of TabZIP2, the 14-3-3 protein, TaWIN1 and the bZIP transcription factor TaABI5L, were identified in a Y2H screen. We established that under elevated ABA levels the activity of TabZIP2 was negatively regulated by the TaWIN1 protein and positively regulated by the SnRK3/CIPK protein kinase WPK4, reported previously to be responsive to nutrient starvation. The physical interaction between the TaWIN1 and the WPK4 was detected. We also compared the influence of homo- and hetero-dimerisation of TabZIP2 and TaABI5L on DNA binding. TabZIP2 gene functional analyses were performed using drought-inducible overexpression of TabZIP2 in transgenic wheat. Transgenic plants grown under moderate drought during flowering, were smaller than control plants, and had fewer spikes and seeds per plant. However, a single seed weight was increased compared to single seed weights of control plants in three of four evaluated transgenic lines. The observed phenotypes of transgenic plants and the regulation of TabZIP2 activity by nutrient starvation-responsive WPK4, suggest that the TabZIP2 could be the part of a signalling pathway, which controls the rearrangement of carbohydrate and nutrient flows in plant organs in response to drought.

15 Characterization of Pm59, a novel powdery mildew resistance gene in Afghanistan wheat landrace PI 181356

Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is an important foliar disease of wheat worldwide. In the Great Plains of the USA, Bgt isolates virulent to widely used powdery mildew resistance genes, such as Pm3a, were previously identified. The objectives of this study were to characterize the powdery mildew resistance gene in Afghanistan landrace PI 181356, which exhibited high resistance to Bgtisolates collected in southern Great Plains, and identify molecular markers for marker-assisted selection. An F2 population and F2:3 lines derived from a cross between PI 181356 and OK1059060-126135-3 were used in this study. Genetic analysis indicated that PI 181356 carries a single dominant gene, designated Pm59, in the terminal region of the long arm of chromosome 7A. Pm59 was mapped to an interval between sequence tag site (STS) markers Xmag1759 and Xmag1714 with genetic distances of 0.4 cM distal to Xmag1759 and 5.7 cM proximal to Xmag1714. Physical mapping suggested that Pm59 is in the distal bin 7AL 0.99–1.00. Pm59 is a novel powdery mildew resistance gene, and confers resistance to Bgt isolates collected from the Great Plains and the state of Montana. Therefore, Pm59 can be used to breed powdery mildew-resistant cultivars in these regions. Xmag1759 is ideal for marker-assisted selection of Pm59 in wheat breeding.

16 Characterisation and mapping of adult plant stripe rust resistance in wheat accession Aus27284

Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is among the most important constraints to global wheat production. The identification and characterisation of new sources of host plant resistance enrich the gene pool and underpin deployment of resistance gene pyramids in new cultivars. Aus27284 exhibited resistance at the adult plant stage against predominant Pst pathotypes and was crossed with a susceptible genotype Avocet S. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population comprising 121 lines was developed and tested in the field at three locations in 2016 and two in 2017 crop seasons. Monogenic segregation for adult plant stripe rust response was observed among the Aus27284/Avocet S RIL population and the underlying locus was temporarily designated YrAW11. Bulked-segregant analysis using the Infinium iSelect 90K SNP wheat array placed YrAW11 in chromosome 3B. Kompetitive allele specific PCR (KASP) primers were designed for the linked SNPs and YrAW11 was flanked by KASP_65624 and KASP_53292 (3 cM) proximally and KASP_53113 (4.9 cM) distally. A partial linkage map of the genomic region carrying YrAW11 comprised nine KASP and two SSR markers. The physical position of KASP markers in the pseudomolecule of chromosome 3B placed YrAW11 in the long arm and the location of markers gwm108 and gwm376 in the deletion bin 3BL2-0.22 supported this conclusion. As no other stripe rust resistance locus has been reported in chromosome 3BL, YrAW11 was formally designated Yr80. Marker KASP_ 53113 was polymorphic among 94% of 81 Australian wheat cultivars used for validation.

17 Systematic analysis of the lysine malonylome in common wheat

In total, 342 lysine malonylated sites were identified in 233 proteins. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the frequency of arginine (R) in position + 1 was highest, and a modification motif, KmaR, was identified. The malonylated proteins were located in multiple subcellular compartments, especially in the cytosol (45%) and chloroplast (30%). The identified proteins were found to be involved in diverse pathways, such as carbon metabolism, the Calvin cycle, and the biosynthesis of amino acids, suggesting an important role for lysine malonylation in these processes. Protein interaction network analysis revealed eight highly interconnected clusters of malonylated proteins, and 137 malonylated proteins were mapped to the protein network database. Moreover, five proteins were simultaneously modified by lysine malonylation, acetylation and succinylation, suggesting that these three PTMs may coordinately regulate the function of many proteins in common wheat.

18 The Impact of Phosphorus Supply on Selenium Uptake During Hydroponics Experiment of Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in China

Selenium (Se) is a necessary trace element for humans and animals, and Se fertilization is an efficient way to increase Se concentration in the edible parts of crops, thus enhance the beneficiary effects of Se in human and animal health. Due to the similarity of physical and chemical properties between phosphate (www.frontiersin.org) and selenite (www.frontiersin.org), phosphorus (P) supply often significantly impacts the absorption of Se in plants, but little is known about how P supply influences the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Se. In this study, the effects of P supply on subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Se in winter wheat were investigated in a hydroponic trial with medium Se level (0.1 mg Se L-1). P was applied with three concentrations (0.31, 3.1, and 31 mg P L-1) in the experiment. The results showed that increasing P supply significantly decreased the concentration and accumulation of Se in the roots, stems, and leaves of winter wheat. An increase in P supply significantly inhibited Se accumulation in the root cell wall, but enhanced Se distribution in the organelles and soluble fraction of root cells. These findings suggest that increased P supply inhibited the root-to-shoot transport of Se. An increase in P supply enhanced Se accumulation in the cell wall of plant stems (both apical and axillary stem) and cell organelles of plants leaves, but inhibited Se distribution in the soluble fraction of stems and leaves. This suggests that P supply enhances Se transportation across the cell membrane in shoots of winter wheat. In addition, increased P supply also altered the chemical forms of Se in tissues of winter wheat. These findings will help in understanding of the regulation grain Se accumulation and provide a practical way to enhance Se intake for humans inform Se-enriched grains.

19 Pm21 from Haynaldia villosa Encodes a CC-NBS-LRR that Confers Powdery Mildew Resistance in Wheat

20 Pm21, encoding a typical CC-NBS-LRR protein, confers broad-spectrum resistance to wheat powdery mildew disease

21 Genetic relationship of diploid wheat (Triticum spp.) species assessed by SSR markers

Genetic diversity of 139 accessions of diploid Triticum species including Triticum urartuTriticum boeoticum and Triticum monococcum was studied using 11 SSR (simple sequence repeats) markers. A total of 111 alleles with an average of 10 alleles per locus were detected. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each SSR marker ranged from 0.30 to 0.90 with an average value of 0.62. Among the three Triticum species T. urartu had the highest number of total alleles (Na = 81), private alleles (Npa = 15) and showed higher genetic diversity (Hex = 0.58; PIC = 0.54). The genotypes from Turkey exhibited the highest genetic diversity (PIC = 0.6), while the least diversity was observed among 4 Georgian accessions (PIC = 0.11). Cluster analysis was able to distinguish 139 wheat accessions at the species level. The highest genetic similarity (GS) was noted between T. boeticum and T. monococcum (GS = 0.84), and the lowest between T. urartu and T. monococcum (GS = 0.46). The grouping pattern of the PCoA analysis corresponded with cluster analysis. No significant differences were found in clustering of T. urartu and T. monococcum accessions with respect to their geographic regions, while within T. boeoticum species, accessions from Iran were somewhat associated with their geographical origin and clustered as a close and separate group. The results from our study demonstrated that SSR markers were good enough for further genetic diversity analysis in einkorn wheat species.

22 A new player in race-specific resistance

23 Complex regulation of the TaMyc1 gene expression in wheat grain synthesizing anthocyanin pigments

The wheat TaMyc1 gene encodes for transcriptional factor (TF) with bHLH domain. The gene is expressed in purple wheat grains and activates transcription of the anthocyanin biosynthesis structural genes. To reveal the features of TaMyc1 regulation in wheat pericarp transcription start sites (TSS) were identified by 5′ RACE mean and translation efficiency was predicted by in silico methods. Three alternative transcript variants of TaMyc1 differing by 5′ leader sequence only were identified in purple pericarp. The three transcripts are generated from distinct TATA boxes and thereby are differed by TSS. Two transcripts (TaMyc1a, -b) have identical initiation AUG codons that lead to the TaMYC1 regulatory protein with bHLH domain. However because of different stability of secondary structures predicted in 5′ leader the two transcripts might be translated with different efficiency. The third transcript is assumed to be not effectively translated. qRT-PCR and colonies counting were applied to assess contribution each of the transcripts to total TaMyc1 gene transcription level. TaMyc1c has the lowest contribution (ca. 16%), whereas the others two transcripts contribute equally (ca. 42%) to total TaMyc1expression level. The role of the tree mRNA isoforms transcribed in one tissue is discussed.

24 Exploiting the Rht portfolio for hybrid wheat breeding

Plant height is an important trait in wheat line breeding, but is of even greater importance in hybrid wheat breeding. Here, the height of the female and male parental lines must be controlled and adjusted relative to each other to maximize hybrid seed production. In addition, the height of the resulting hybrids must be fine-tuned to meet the specific requirements of the farmers in the target regions. Moreover, this must be achieved without adversely impacting traits relevant for hybrid seed production. In this study, we explored Reduced height (Rht) loci effective in elite wheat and exploited their utilization for hybrid wheat breeding. We performed association mapping in a panel of 1705 wheat hybrids and their 225 parental lines, which besides the Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci revealed Rht24 as a major QTL for plant height. Furthermore, we found that the Rht-1 loci also reduce anther extrusion and thus cross-pollination ability, whereas Rht24 appeared to have no adverse effect on this trait. Our results suggest different haplotypes of the three Rht loci to be used in the female or male pool of a hybrid breeding program, but also show that in general, plant height is a quantitative trait controlled by numerous small-effect QTL. Consequently, marker-assisted selection for the major Rht loci must be complemented by phenotypic selection to achieve the desired height in the female and male parents as well as in the wheat hybrids.

25 Molecular Cytogenetic Characterization of New Wheat—Dasypyrum breviaristatumIntrogression Lines for Improving Grain Quality of Wheat

As an important relative of wheat (Triticum aestivum L), Dasypyrum breviaristatum contains novel high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) encoded by Glu-1Vb genes. We identified new wheat—D. breviaristatumchromosome introgression lines including chromosomes 1Vb and 1VbL.5VbL by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) combined with molecular markers. We found that chromosome changes occurred in the wheat—D. breviaristatumintrogression lines and particularly induced the deletion of 5BS terminal repeats and formation of a new type of 5B-7B reciprocal translocation. The results imply that the D. breviaristatum chromosome 1Vb may contain genes which induce chromosomal recombination in wheat background. Ten putative high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes from D. breviaristatum and wheat—D. breviaristatumintrogression lines were isolated. The lengths of the HMW-GS genes in Dasypyrumwere significantly shorter than typical HMW-GS of common wheat. A new y-type HMW-GS gene, named Glu-Vb1y, was characterized in wheat—D. breviaristatum1Vb introgression lines. The new wheat—D. breviaristatum germplasm displayed reduced plant height, increased tillers and superior grain protein and gluten contents, improved gluten performance index. The results showed considerable potential for utilization of D. breviaristatum chromosome 1Vb segments in future wheat improvement.

26 Wheat ear counting in-field conditions: high throughput and low-cost approach using RGB images

The results demonstrate high success rate (higher than 90%) between the algorithm counts and the manual (image-based) ear counts, and precision, with a low standard deviation (around 5%). The relationships between algorithm ear counts and grain yield was also significant and greater than the correlation with manual (field-based) ear counts. In this approach, results demonstrate that automatic ear counting performed on data captured around anthesis correlated better with grain yield than with images captured at later stages when the low performance of ear counting at late grain filling stages was associated with the loss of contrast between canopy and ears.

27 Dynamics of Floret Initiation/Death Determining Spike Fertility in Wheat as Affected by Ppd Genes under Field Conditions

As wheat yield is linearly related to grain number, understanding the physiological determinants of the number of fertile florets based on floret development dynamics due to the role of the particular genes is relevant. The effects of photoperiod genes on dynamics of floret development are largely ignored. Field experiments were carried out to (i) characterize the dynamics of floret primordia initiation and degeneration and (ii) to determine which are the most critical traits of such dynamics in establishing genotypic differences in the number of fertile florets at anthesis in near isogenic lines (NILs) carrying photoperiod insensitive alleles. Results varied in magnitude between the two growing seasons, but in general introgression of Ppd-1aalleles reduced the number of fertile florets. The actual effect was affected not only by the genome and the doses but also by the source of the alleles. Differences in the number of fertile florets were mainly explained by differences in the floret generation/degeneration dynamics and in most cases associated with floret survival. Manipulating photoperiod insensitivity, unquestionably useful for changing flowering time, may reduce spike fertility but much less than proportionally to the change in duration of development, as the insensitivity alleles did increase the rate of floret development.

28 Rht18 Semi-Dwarfism in Wheat is Due to Increased Expression of GA 2-oxidaseA9 and Lower GA Content

Semi-dwarfing genes have contributed to major yield increases in crop species by reducing height, improving lodging resistance, and partitioning more assimilates to grain growth. In wheat, the Rht18 semi-dwarfing gene was identified and deployed in durum wheat before it was transferred into bread wheat where it was shown to have agronomic potential. Rht18, a dominant and gibberellin (GA) responsive mutant, is genetically and functionally distinct from the widely used GA insensitive semi-dwarfing genes Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b. In this study, the Rht18 gene was identified by mutagenizing the semi-dwarf durum cultivar Icaro (Rht18) and generating mutants with a range of tall phenotypes. Isolating and sequencing chromosome 6A of these 'overgrowth' mutants showed that they contained independent mutations in the coding region of GA2oxA9, a gene predicted to encode a GA 2-oxidase that metabolises GA biosynthetic intermediates into inactive products, thereby lowering the amount of bioactive GA (GA1). Functional analysis of the GA2oxA9 protein demonstrated conversion of the intermediate GA12 to the inactive metabolite GA110. Analysis of transcript abundance and GA content showed that the expression of GA 2-oxA9 was higher, and the GA content lower, in Rht18 compared with its tall parent. These data indicate that the increased expression of GA2oxA9 in Rht18 results in a reduction of both bioactive GA content and plant height. This study describes a height reducing mechanism that can generate new genetic diversity for semi-dwarfism in wheat by combining increased expression with mutations of specific amino acid residues in the GA2oxA9 gene.

29 Photosynthetic and ascorbate-glutathione metabolism in the flag leaves as compared to spikes under drought stress of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Ascorbate-glutathione (ASA-GSH) cycle is a major pathway of H2O2 scavenging and an effective mechanism of detoxification in plants. The differences in photosynthesis, chlorophyll content (Chl), relative water content (RWC), antioxidants and antioxidative enzyme activities involved in ASA-GSH metabolism were measured between the flag leaves and spike bracts (glumes and lemmas) during grain filling under drought stress. The expression of APX1, GRC1, DHAR, MDHAR, GPX1, and GS3 in ASA-GSH cycle was also measured. Compared with the flag leaves, the spike bracts exhibited stable net photosynthetic rate (PN) and chlorophyll content (Chl), a lower accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and more enhanced percentages of antioxidant enzyme activities and key enzymes gene transcription levels involved in ASA-GSH metabolism during the grain-filling stage under drought conditions. This could be the reasonable explanation for the more stable photosynthetic capacity in spikes, and the glumes and lemmas senesced later than the flag leaves at the late grain-filling stage. Also, the function of ASA-GSH cycle could not be ignored in alleviating oxidative damage by scavenging more excess ROS in spikes under drought stress.

30 Proteomic analysis of melatonin-mediated osmotic tolerance by improving energy metabolism and autophagy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Melatonin is known to play multiple roles in plant abiotic stress tolerance. However, its role in wheat has been rarely investigated. In this study, 25% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG 6000) was used to simulate osmotic stress, and wheat seeds and seedlings were treated with different concentrations of melatonin under PEG stress. Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic techniques were used to identify the differentially accumulated proteins from melatonin-treated and non-treated seedlings. Seeding priming with melatonin significantly increased the germination rate, coleoptile length, and primary root number of wheat under PEG stress, as well as the fresh weight, dry weight, and water content of wheat seedlings. Under PEG stress, melatonin significantly improved reactive oxygen species homeostasis, as revealed by lower H2O2 and O 2 · content; and the expression of antioxidant enzymes at the transcription and translation levels was increased. Melatonin maintained seedling growth by improving photosynthetic rates and instantaneous and intrinsic water use efficiencies, as well as carbon fixation and starch synthesis at the protein level. Melatonin treatment significantly affected the expression of glycolytic proteins, including fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, hexokinase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and enolase, and remarkably increased the expression of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide transporter and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide binding protein, thereby indirectly modulating electron transport in the respiratory chain. This indicated that melatonin improved energy production in PEG-stressed seedlings. Further, melatonin played a regulatory role in autophagy, protease expression, and ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation by significantly upregulating rab-related protein, fused signal recognition particle receptor, aspartyl protease, serine protease, ubiquitin-fold modifier 1, and ubiquitin at the mRNA or protein level. These findings suggested that melatonin might activate a metabolic cascade related to autophagy under PEG stress in wheat seedlings.

31 Analysis of the functions of TaGW2 homoeologs in wheat grain weight and protein content traits

mage-20180324224057

GW2 is emerging as a key genetic determinant of grain weight in cereal crops, and has three homoeologs (TaGW2-A1, -B1 and -D1) in hexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, by analyzing the gene editing mutants lacking one (B1 or D1), two (B1 and D1) or all three (A1, B1 and D1) homoeologs of TaGW2, several insights are gained into the functions of TaGW2-B1 and -D1 in common wheat grain traits. First, both TaGW2-B1 and -D1 affect thousand grain weight (TGW) through influencing grain width and length, but the effect conferred by TaGW2-B1 is stronger than that by TaGW2-D1. Second, there exists functional interaction between TaGW2 homoeologs because the TGW increase shown by a double mutant (lacking B1 and D1) was substantially larger than that by their single mutants. Third, both TaGW2-B1 and -D1 modulate cell number and length in the outer pericarp of developing grains, with TaGW2-B1 being more potent. Finally, TaGW2 homoeologs also affect grain protein content (GPC) as this parameter was generally increased in the mutants, especially in the lines lacking two or three homoeologs. Consistent with this finding, two wheat end-use quality related parameters, flour protein content and gluten strength, were considerably elevated in the mutants. Collectively, our data shed light on functional difference and additive interaction of TaGW2 homoeologs in the genetic control of grain weight and protein content traits in common wheat, which may accelerate further research on this important gene and its application in wheat improvement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

32 Dynamics of Leaf and Spikelet Primordia Initiation in Wheat as Affected by Ppd-1a Alleles under Field Conditions

Wheat adaptation is affected by Ppd genes, but the role of these alleles on the rates of leaf and spikelet initiation has not been properly analysed. Twelve near isogenic lines (NILs) combining Ppd-1a alleles from different donors introgressed in A, B and/or D genomes were tested under field conditions during two growing seasons together with the wild type, Paragon. Leaf initiation rate was unaffected by Ppd-1aalleles so final leaf number (FLN) was reduced in parallel with reductions in the duration of vegetative phase. Spikelet primordia initiation was accelerated and consequently the effect on spikelets per spike was less than proportional to the effect on the duration of spikelet initiation. The magnitude of these effects on spikelet-plastochron depended on the doses of Ppd-1 homoeoalleles and the specific insensitivity alleles carried. Double ridge was consistently later than floral initiation but the difference between them was not affected by Ppd-1a alleles. These findings open potential for selecting best combinations from the Ppd-1 homoeoallelic series for manipulating adaptation considering particular effects on spikelet number.

33 Molecular Mapping of Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in the Spring Wheat Line ND2710.

ND2710 is a hard red spring wheat line with a very high level of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB). It was selected from the progeny of a cross between ND2603 (an advanced breeding line derived from the Sumai 3/Wheaton cross) and Grandin (a spring wheat cultivar). The FHB resistance of ND2710 is presumably derived from Sumai 3 since the other parents Grandin and Wheaton are very susceptible to FHB. To identify and map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for FHB resistance in ND2710, we developed a mapping population consisting of 233 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross between ND2710 and the spring wheat cultivar 'Bobwhite'. These RILs along with their parents and checks were evaluated for reactions to FHB in three greenhouse experiments and one field experiment during 2013 to 2014. The population was also genotyped with the wheat 90K SNP iSelect assay, and a genetic linkage map was developed with 1373 non-co-segregating SNP markers, which were distributed on all 21 wheat chromosomes spanning 914.98 cM of genetic distance. Genetic analyses using both phenotypic and genotypic data identified one major QTL (Qfhb.ndwp-3B) on the short arm of chromosome 3B, explaining up to 20% of the phenotypic variation in all experiments, and three minor QTL (Qfhb.ndwp-6B, Qfhb.ndwp-2A, and Qfhb.ndwp-6A) on 6B, 2A, and 6A, respectively. The three minor QTL explained 5 to 12% phenotypic variation in at least two experiments, except for Qfhb.ndwp-2A, which was only detected in the field experiment. Qfhb.ndwp-3B and Qfhb.ndwp-6B were mapped to the genomic regions containing Fhb1 and Fhb2, respectively, confirming that they were originated from Sumai 3. The additive effect of the major and minor QTL may contribute to the high level of FHB resistance in ND2710. The SNP markers closely linked to the FHB resistance QTL will be useful for marker-assisted selection of FHB resistance in wheat breeding programs.

34 Characterization of an Integrated Active Glu-1Ay Allele in Common Wheat from Wild Emmer and Its Potential Role in Flour Improvement.

Glu-1Ay, one of six genes encoding a high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS), is frequently silenced in hexaploid common wheat. Here, an active allele of Glu-1Ay was integrated from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) accession D97 into the common wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar Chuannong 16 via the repeated self-fertilization of the pentaploid interspecific hybrid, culminating in the selection of a line TaAy7-40 shown to express the wild emmer Glu-1Ay allele. The open reading frame of this allele was a 1830 bp long sequence, demonstrated by its heterologous expression in Escherichia coli to encode a 608-residue polypeptide. Its nucleotide sequence was 99.2% identical to that of the sequence within the wild emmer parent. The TaAy7-40 introgression line containing the active Glu-1Ayallele showed higher protein content, higher sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation value, higher content of wet gluten in the flour, higher grain weight, and bigger grain size than Chuannong 16. The end-use quality parameters of the TaAy7-40 were superior to those of the medium gluten common wheat cultivars Mianmai 37 and Neimai 9. Thus, the active Glu-1Ay allele might be of potential value in breeding programs designed to improve wheat flour quality.

35 Systematic analysis of the lysine malonylome in common wheat

In total, 342 lysine malonylated sites were identified in 233 proteins. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the frequency of arginine (R) in position + 1 was highest, and a modification motif, KmaR, was identified. The malonylated proteins were located in multiple subcellular compartments, especially in the cytosol (45%) and chloroplast (30%). The identified proteins were found to be involved in diverse pathways, such as carbon metabolism, the Calvin cycle, and the biosynthesis of amino acids, suggesting an important role for lysine malonylation in these processes. Protein interaction network analysis revealed eight highly interconnected clusters of malonylated proteins, and 137 malonylated proteins were mapped to the protein network database. Moreover, five proteins were simultaneously modified by lysine malonylation, acetylation and succinylation, suggesting that these three PTMs may coordinately regulate the function of many proteins in common wheat.

36 Genome-Wide Identification and Characterization of Long Non-Coding RNA in Wheat Roots in Response to Ca2+ Channel Blocker

It remains unclear whether plant lncRNAs are responsive to Ca2+-channel blocking. When using the Ca2+-channel blocker, LaCl3, to treat germinated wheat seeds for 24 h, we found that both root length and mitosis were inhibited in the LaCl3-treated groups. The effect of the Ca2+-channel blocker was verified in three ways: a [Ca2+]cytdecrease detected using Fluo-3/AM staining, a decrease in the Ca content measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and an inhibition of Ca2+influx detected using Non-invasive Micro-test Technology. Genome-wide high throughput RNA-seq and bioinformatical methods were used to identify lncRNAs, and found 177 differentially expressed lncRNAs that might be in responsive to Ca2+-channel blocking. Among these, 108 were up-regulated and 69 were down-regulated. The validity of identified lncRNAs data from RNA-seq was verified using qPCR. GO and KEGG analysis indicated that a number of lncRNAs might be involved in diverse biological processes upon Ca2+-channel blocking. Further GO analysis showed that 23 lncRNAs might play roles as transcription factor (TF); Moreover, eight lncRNAs might participate in cell cycle regulation, and their relative expressions were detected using qPCR. This study also provides diverse data on wheat lncRNAs that can deepen our understanding of the function and regulatory mechanism of Ca2+-channel blocking in plants.

36 First report of Fusarium pseudograminearum causing crown rot of wheat in Europe




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