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功能性神经障碍(英译中)

已有 918 次阅读 2022-10-24 03:50 |个人分类:Health & Health-Care System|系统分类:科普集锦


 

Functional neurologic disorder 

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/conversion-disorder/symptoms-causes/syc-20355197

 

注:我把谷狗翻译的中文放前面。我“纠错”不到10次。

 

概述

功能性神经系统疾病——一个更新和更广泛的术语,包括一些人所说的转换障碍——以神经系统(神经性的)症状为特征,这些症状不能用神经系统疾病或其他“疾病”来解释。然而,这些症状是真实的,(可能)会导致严重的痛苦或功能问题。

体征和症状因功能性神经系统疾病的类型而异,并且可能包括特定的模式。通常,这种疾病会影响你的运动或感觉,例如行走、吞咽、看或听的能力。症状的严重程度可能会有所不同,并且可能来来去去或持续存在。但是,你不能故意产生或控制你的症状。

功能性神经系统疾病的原因尚不清楚。这种情况可能是由神经系统疾病或对压力或心理或身体创伤的反应引发的,但情况并非总是如此。功能性神经系统疾病与大脑的功能有关,而不是与大脑结构的损害有关(例如中风、多发性硬化症、感染或损伤)。

早期诊断和治疗,尤其是有关病情的教育,有助于康复。

 

Overview

Functional neurologic disorder — a newer and broader term that includes what some people call conversion disorder — features nervous system (neurological) symptoms that can't be explained by a neurological disease or other medical condition. However, the symptoms are real and cause significant distress or problems functioning.

Signs and symptoms vary, depending on the type of functional neurologic disorder, and may include specific patterns. Typically, this disorder affects your movement or your senses, such as the ability to walk, swallow, see or hear. Symptoms can vary in severity and may come and go or be persistent. However, you can't intentionally produce or control your symptoms.

The cause of functional neurologic disorder is unknown. The condition may be triggered by a neurological disorder or by a reaction to stress or psychological or physical trauma, but that's not always the case. Functional neurologic disorder is related to how the brain functions, rather than damage to the brain's structure (such as from a stroke, multiple sclerosis, infection or injury).

Early diagnosis and treatment, especially education about the condition, can help with recovery.

症状

功能性神经系统疾病的体征和症状可能会有所不同,具体取决于功能性神经系统症状的类型,并且它们足以导致损害并需要进行医学评估。症状会影响身体运动和功能以及感觉。

影响身体运动和功能的体征和症状可能包括:

·       虚弱或瘫痪

·       异常运动,例如震颤或行走困难

·       失去平衡

·       吞咽困难或感觉“喉咙有肿块”

·       癫痫发作或颤抖发作和明显的意识丧失(非癫痫发作)

·       反应迟钝发作

影响感官的体征和症状可能包括:

·       麻木或触觉丧失

·       言语问题,例如无法说话或口齿不清

·       视力问题,例如复视或失明

·       听力问题或耳聋

·       涉及记忆和注意力的认知困难

 

Symptoms

Signs and symptoms of functional neurologic disorder may vary, depending on the type of functional neurological symptoms, and they're significant enough to cause impairment and warrant medical evaluation. Symptoms can affect body movement and function and the senses.

Signs and symptoms that affect body movement and function may include:

·       Weakness or paralysis

·       Abnormal movement, such as tremors or difficulty walking

·       Loss of balance

·       Difficulty swallowing or feeling "a lump in the throat"

·       Seizures or episodes of shaking and apparent loss of consciousness (nonepileptic seizures)

·       Episodes of unresponsiveness

Signs and symptoms that affect the senses may include:

·       Numbness or loss of the touch sensation

·       Speech problems, such as the inability to speak or slurred speech

·       Vision problems, such as double vision or blindness

·       Hearing problems or deafness

·       Cognitive difficulties involving memory and concentration

 

什么时候(应该)去看医生

如果你担心或它干扰你的身体机能,请就医。如果根本原因是神经系统疾病或其他疾病,快速诊断和治疗可能很重要。如果诊断为功能性神经系统疾病,治疗可能会改善症状并有助于预防未来的问题。

 

When to see a doctor

Seek medical attention for signs and symptoms that concern you or interfere with your ability to function. If the underlying cause is a neurological disease or another medical condition, quick diagnosis and treatment may be important. If the diagnosis is functional neurologic disorder, treatment may improve the symptoms and help prevent future problems.

 

原因

功能性神经系统疾病的确切原因尚不清楚。关于大脑中发生什么导致症状的理论很复杂,并且涉及多种可能不同的机制,具体取决于功能性神经症状的类型。

 

Causes

The exact cause of functional neurologic disorder is unknown. Theories regarding what happens in the brain to result in symptoms are complex and involve multiple mechanisms that may differ, depending on the type of functional neurological symptoms.

风险因素

可能增加你患功能性神经系统疾病风险的因素包括:

·       患有神经系统疾病或障碍,例如癫痫、偏头痛或运动障碍

·       最近的重大压力或情绪或身体创伤

·       有心理健康状况,例如情绪或焦虑症、分离障碍或某些人格障碍

·       有一个患有神经系统疾病或症状的家庭成员

·       童年时期有身体或性虐待、或被忽视

女性可能比男性更容易患上功能性神经系统疾病。

 

基本上,控制肌肉和感官功能的大脑部分可能会参与其中,即使没有疾病或异常存在。

功能性神经系统疾病的症状可能在压力事件或情绪或身体创伤后突然出现。其他触发因素可能包括大脑在结构、细胞或代谢水平上功能的变化或中断。但并不总是能确定症状的触发因素。

 

Risk factors

Factors that may increase your risk of functional neurologic disorder include:

·       Having a neurological disease or disorder, such as epilepsy, migraines or a movement disorder

·       Recent significant stress or emotional or physical trauma

·       Having a mental health condition, such as a mood or anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders

·       Having a family member with a neurological condition or symptoms

·       Having a history of physical or sexual abuse or neglect in childhood

Females may be more likely than males to develop functional neurologic disorder.

Basically, parts of the brain that control the functioning of your muscles and senses may be involved, even though no disease or abnormality exists.

Symptoms of functional neurologic disorder may appear suddenly after a stressful event, or with emotional or physical trauma. Other triggers may include changes or disruptions in how the brain functions at the structural, cellular or metabolic level. But the trigger for symptoms can't always be identified.

并发症

功能性神经系统疾病的某些症状,特别是如果不治疗,可能导致严重的残疾和生活质量差,类似于由医疗状况或疾病引起的问题。

功能性神经系统疾病可能与:

·       疼痛

·       焦虑症,包括恐慌症

·       沮丧

·       失眠

·       疲劳

 

 

Complications

Some symptoms of functional neurologic disorder, particularly if not treated, can result in substantial disability and poor quality of life, similar to problems caused by medical conditions or disease.

Functional neurologic disorder may be associated with:

·       Pain

·       Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder

·       Depression

·       Insomnia

·       Fatigue

 

 后注:纪念得病5周年。




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