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如何写好科技英语300字短文:Part I (Feb 4,2019) 精选

已有 7253 次阅读 2019-2-5 07:01 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语写作

讲课用的textbook: College Writing Skills with Readings, Ninth Edition (美国大学英语写作第九版) by John Langan (available on jd for less than RMB70)



You can get a free copy for the 7th edition:

but it is a very old version.


Part I: Essay Writing (如何写短文)

Chapter 5: The Fourth Step in Essay Writing

This chapter will show you how to

·      revise so that your sentences flow smoothly and clearly

·      edit so that your sentences are error free


Vary Your Sentences 

One aspect of effective writing is to vary your sentences. If every sentence follows the same pattern, writing may become monotonous. 

The following are four methods you can use to make your sentences more varied and more sophisticated: 

·     Add a second complete thought (coordination). 

·     Add a dependent thought (subordination). 

·     Begin with a special opening word or phrase. 

·     Place adjectives or verbs in a series. 


Revise by Adding a Second Complete Thought (Coordination) 

When you add a second complete thought to a simple sentence, the result is a compound (or double) sentence. The two complete statements in a compound sentence are usually connected by a comma plus a joining, or coordinating, word (and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet). 

Use a compound sentence when you want to give equal weight to two closely related ideas. The technique of showing that ideas have equal importance is called coordination.

I repeatedly failed the math quizzes, so I decided to drop the course. 


Revise by Adding a Dependent Thought (Subordination) 

When you add a dependent thought to a simple sentence, the result is a complex sentence.

complex sentence is used to emphasize one idea over another. Look at the following complex sentence: 

Although I lowered the thermostat, my heating bill remained high. 


Revise by Beginning with a Special Opening Word or Phrase 

Among the special openers that can be used to start sentences are 

(1) -ed words, (2) -ing words, (3) -ly words, (4) to word groups, and 

(5) prepositional phrases. 


Here are examples of all five kinds of openers: 

-ed word

Tired from a long day of work, Sharon fell asleep on the sofa. 

-ing word

Using a thick towel, Mel dried his hair quickly. 

-ly word

Reluctantly, I agreed to rewrite the paper. 

to word group

To get to the church on time, you must leave now. 

prepositional phrase 

With Fred’s help, Martha planted the evergreen shrubs. 


Revise by Placing Adjectives or Verbs in a Series 

Various parts of a sentence may be placed in a series. Among these parts are adjectives (descriptive words) and verbs. Here are examples of both in a series. 


The black, smeary newsprint rubbed off on my new butcher-block table. 


The quarterback fumbled the ball, recovered it, and sighed with relief. 




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