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**ChatGPT“智能”测试：试让ChatGPT创造新概念 **

**程京德**

概要：声称ChatGPT能够创造新概念或者至少能够帮助人们创造新概念是言过其实。笔者相信，本质上是依靠学习和训练来获得能力的AIGC工具永无可能具备创造性功能[1,2]。

因为看到有人声称ChatGPT能够创造新概念或者至少能够帮助人们创造新概念，故笔者对其“智能”又进行了一次测试（第5次），测试结果如下，仅供参考。

量子相关逻辑(Quantum Relevant Logic)及相关量子逻辑(Relevant Quantum Logic)是笔者去年才提出的两个新概念，其准确定义还在研究之中，所以应该算是两个崭新的概念，ChatGPT完全无处可“学”。笔者这次对ChatGPT(3.5)的创新性“智能”测试，便是围绕这两个新概念来进行的。

Question：“What is quantum logic?”

ChatGPT: “Quantum logic is a theoretical framework used to describe and understand the behavior of quantum systems. It is a departure from classical logic, which is the foundation of classical physics and everyday reasoning. Classical logic follows the principles of classical Boolean algebra, where statements can be either true (1) or false (0), and logical operations like AND, OR, and NOT are well-defined and intuitive. However, in the quantum world, where systems exhibit phenomena like superposition and entanglement, classical logic doesn't fully apply. Quantum logic is an extension of classical logic that accommodates these unique features of quantum systems. Key points of quantum logic include: Superposition, …(省略，笔者注，下同), Entanglement, …, Quantum Measurements, …, Non-Commutativity, …, Quantum Gates, …. It's important to note that quantum logic can be more complex and counterintuitive compared to classical logic, as it deals with the unique properties of the quantum world. While classical logic can be seen as a special case of quantum logic when dealing with macroscopic systems and non-quantum phenomena, quantum logic is essential for accurately describing and predicting the behavior of quantum systems, such as those encountered in quantum mechanics and quantum computing.”

笔者评价：回答的前半部分对于量子逻辑的描述基本是对的，后半部分对于量子逻辑与经典逻辑的对比像是似是而非的废话。

Question：“What is relevant logic?”

ChatGPT: “Relevant logic, also known as relevance logic, is a non-classical approach to formal logic that places emphasis on the relevance or significance of information in the evaluation of logical statements. Unlike classical logic, which is based on classical Boolean algebra and follows the law of excluded middle (statements are either true or false) and the law of non-contradiction (a statement cannot be both true and false simultaneously), relevant logic allows for a more nuanced treatment of implication and truth values. The key concept in relevant logic is that the truth value of a statement depends not only on its current truth or falsity but also on its relevance to the context or other statements. In other words, a statement is considered true not just because it is directly true under current conditions, but also if it is relevant to the discussion or if its truth or falsity affects the truth values of other related statements. Relevance logic introduces different implication operators that capture this notion of relevance more accurately than classical implication. For example, one commonly used relevance logic operator is "→R" (read as "relevant implication"), which asserts that a statement A implies another statement B if and only if B is relevant in light of A. Relevance logic has found applications in various fields, including artificial intelligence, philosophy of language, and linguistics, where the context and relevance of information play a crucial role. It allows for a more flexible and context-sensitive treatment of logical reasoning and inference, particularly in situations where classical logic might yield counterintuitive or inappropriate results. It's worth noting that relevance logic is just one example of non-classical logic, and there are many other non-classical logics that depart from the principles of classical logic to address specific issues or philosophical considerations.”

笔者评价：基本上是貌似合理正确的胡说八道。如果哪位相信ChatGPT对相关逻辑的这个介绍，那么就会上当受骗陷入对相关逻辑的错误认知大坑里。

Question：“What is relevance logic?”

ChatGPT: “I apologize for any confusion in my previous responses. Relevance logic, also known as relevant logic, is a type of non-classical logic that emphasizes the relationship between premises and conclusions in logical reasoning. Unlike classical logic, which operates based on the principles of the law of excluded middle and the law of non-contradiction, relevance logic introduces a more refined understanding of implication and truth values by considering the relevance of premises to conclusions. In relevance logic, the idea is that for a conclusion to be validly drawn from a set of premises, there must be a relevant connection between the premises and the conclusion. This means that the truth value of a statement doesn't solely depend on its individual truth or falsity, but also on its relevance to the reasoning process. Relevance logic often employs specific implication operators, such as "→R" (relevant implication), to formalize this concept of relevance. In this logic, a statement A implies another statement B if and only if B is relevant in the context of A. Relevance logic has applications in various fields, including philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. It offers a way to handle contexts where the relevance of information matters for valid inference, which is particularly useful when classical logic might lead to counterintuitive results. To summarize, relevance logic is a type of non-classical logic that places importance on the relevance of premises to conclusions, providing a more nuanced approach to logical reasoning and inference compared to classical logic.”

笔者评价：这个描述可以说基本正确。这是一个有意思的现象。相关逻辑（在中国也有学者称之为“相干逻辑”）有两种英文名称，relevant logic 和 relevance logic。对于仅仅相差在一个修饰词的两个询问，ChatGPT给出的回答竟然相当不同。

Question：“Is quantum logic relevant?”

ChatGPT: “Yes, quantum logic is relevant in the context of understanding and describing the behavior of quantum systems. Quantum logic is a specialized logical framework used to model and analyze quantum phenomena, which are inherently different from classical phenomena. Classical logic, based on classical Boolean algebra, is insufficient to fully describe the behavior of quantum systems due to phenomenasuch as superposition, entanglement, and the probabilistic nature of measurement outcomes. Quantum logic provides a more appropriate framework for addressing these unique features of the quantum world. Here's why quantum logic is relevant: Superposition and Entanglement, …, Non-Commutativity, …, Quantum Measurements, …, Quantum Computing, …, Foundational Questions, …. While quantum logic is highly relevant in the field of quantum physics and quantum computing, it's important to note that it diverges from classical intuition, and its mathematical and conceptual intricacies can be challenging to grasp fully. Nevertheless, for understanding and working with quantum systems, quantum logic is a crucial tool.”

笔者评价：基本上是貌似合理正确的胡说八道。对“relevant”的“解释”完全不对头。

Question：“Is relevant logic quantum?”

ChatGPT: “No, relevant logic is not inherently quantum. Relevant logic and quantum logic are distinct concepts, although both deviate from classical logic in different ways. Relevant logic is a type of non-classical logic that focuses on the relevance of information in logical reasoning. It introduces a nuanced approach to implication and truth values by considering how the relevance of premises impacts the conclusions drawn from them. Quantum logic, on the other hand, is a logical framework used to describe and understand the behavior of quantum systems. It is specifically designed to accommodate the unique features of quantum mechanics, such as superposition, entanglement, and non-commutativity. While both relevant logic and quantum logic depart from classical logic, they address different aspects of reasoning and different domains. Relevant logic is more concerned with context-sensitive inference, while quantum logic is tailored to describing the behavior of quantum systems.”

笔者评价：基本正确。从对上面两个询问的回答来看，ChatGPT对“relevant logic”的“语义解释”优于对单独一个修饰词“relevant”的“语义解释”。

Question：“Tell me how to make relevant logic quantum.”

ChatGPT: “As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, there isn't a straightforward way to "make" relevant logic quantum in the same sense that you can apply certain principles to turn classical logic into quantum logic. Relevant logic and quantum logic are distinct formal systems, and their differences are deeply rooted in their foundational concepts. Relevant logic focuses on relevance in logical reasoning, emphasizing the relationship between premises and conclusions. It deals with classical truth values (true or false) but introduces a more nuanced approach to implication based on relevance. Quantum logic, on the other hand, is designed to capture the behavior of quantum systems, which exhibit properties like superposition and entanglement. Quantum logic operates with quantum states, operators, and measurement probabilities, which are very different from classical logic's truth values. While there might be philosophical or theoretical discussions about the relevance of quantum logic in certain contexts, merging relevant logic and quantum logic directly isn't a common approach due to their fundamental differences. These two types of logic address different domains and have different motivations. If there have been developments or proposals to combine relevant logic and quantum logic after September 2021, I wouldn't be aware of them. I recommend consulting more recent literature and research in logic, philosophy, and quantum theory for any potential advancements in this area.”

笔者评价：经过前面几个询问的准备，从这个询问开始，意图是测试ChatGPT的创造性“智能”了。从“掌握知识”的角度来看，ChatGPT的回答相当靠谱。然而，从询问的本意让ChatGPT“创新”的角度来看，它除了陈述会遇到困难，其它什么也回答不出。

Question：“Tell me how to make quantum logic relevant.”

ChatGPT: “As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, there isn't a widely recognized approach to "make" quantum logic relevant in the same sense that you can directly incorporate relevance into quantum logic. Quantum logic and relevant logic are distinct formal systems with different foundations and purposes. Quantum logic is designed to capture the behavior of quantum systems, which involve phenomena like superposition, entanglement, and non-commutativity. It operates with quantum states, operators, and measurement probabilities, focusing on the unique aspects of quantum mechanics. Relevant logic, on the other hand, emphasizes the relevance of premises and conclusions in logical reasoning. It deals with classical truth values (true or false) and introduces a more nuanced approach to implication based on relevance. Given their distinct natures, directly merging quantum logic and relevant logic may not be straightforward or even meaningful without a clear theoretical basis. However, if you're interested in exploring the relationship between these logics or in applying relevant considerations to quantum contexts, you might consider the following: Philosophical Investigations, …, Contextuality, …, Interdisciplinary Research, …, New Research Developments, …. It's important to note that developments might have occurred since my last update, and I recommend consulting more recent literature, academic journals, and experts in relevant areas for any advancements or discussions related to combining quantum logic and relevance considerations.”

笔者评价：和对上一个询问的回答基本一样。

Question：“What is relevant quantum logic?”

ChatGPT: “As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, "relevant quantum logic" doesn't refer to a widely recognized or established concept in the field of logic or quantum mechanics. However, I can provide some general insights based on the terms "relevant" and "quantum logic." "Relevant quantum logic" could potentially refer to a theoretical approach that attempts to incorporate notions of relevance into the framework of quantum logic. This might involve exploring how relevance considerations, similar to those found in relevant logic, could be applied to the reasoning or interpretation of quantum phenomena. Relevance logic, as previously discussed, focuses on the relevance of premises and conclusions in logical reasoning, and it introduces a more nuanced approach to implication. In a quantum context, relevance could pertain to the contextual nature of quantum measurements and the interdependence of quantum states. It's worth noting that developing a coherent and meaningful integration of relevance concepts into quantum logic could be complex due to the fundamental differences between classical and quantum reasoning. If there have been any developments or discussions related to "relevant quantum logic" after September 2021, I wouldn't have that information. I recommend consulting more recent literature, academic sources, or experts in logic and quantum theory for any new insights or concepts that have emerged.”

笔者评价：应该说，从“掌握知识”的角度来看，ChatGPT的回答相当不错。“"Relevant quantum logic" could potentially refer to a theoretical approach that attempts to incorporate notions of relevance into the framework of quantum logic. This might involve exploring how relevance considerations, similar to those found in relevant logic, could be applied to the reasoning or interpretation of quantum phenomena.”这个“猜测性解释”相当准确！

Question：“What is quantum relevant logic?”

ChatGPT: “As of my last knowledge update in September 2021, "quantum relevant logic" doesn't refer to a well-established or widely recognized concept in the field of logic or quantum mechanics. However, I can provide some general insights based on the terms "quantum" and "relevant logic." "Quantum relevant logic" could potentially refer to a theoretical framework that aims to combine elements of both quantum logic and relevant logic. Quantum logic is designed to capture the unique characteristics of quantum systems, while relevant logic emphasizes the relevance of premises and conclusions in logical reasoning. In this hypothetical framework, the goal might be to incorporate relevance considerations into the context of quantum logic, recognizing that quantum phenomena can exhibit contextuality and interdependence. This could involve exploring how the contextual and non-classical aspects of quantum systems could be addressed using concepts from relevant logic. However, developing such a framework could be challenging due to the fundamental differences between quantum logic and relevant logic, as well as the complexity of quantum phenomena. Any attempt to combine these two areas would likely require careful consideration of their underlying principles and potential applications. If there have been any developments or discussions related to "quantum relevant logic" after September 2021, I wouldn't have access to that information. I recommend consulting more recent literature, academic sources, or experts in logic and quantum theory for any emerging concepts or theories that might relate to this idea.”

笔者评价：和对上一个询问的回答基本一样，所以，并没有清楚地“解释”出两者在本质上有何不同。认识到量子相关逻辑和相关量子逻辑两者之间可能的本质不同，对于ChatGPT来说应该是太难了，如果不是笔者认为的根本就不可能的话。

结论：创建量子相关逻辑/相关量子逻辑的目的是为了解决基于经典数理逻辑的现今各种量子逻辑中的问题，应该说这些问题还未被广为人知，ChatGPT当然无处可“学”。连需要解决的问题都不清楚，ChatGPT如何能够“创新”出与解决问题相关的新概念和“提示”出解决问题的新方法？所以，声称ChatGPT能够创造新概念或者至少能够帮助人们创造新概念是言过其实。笔者相信，本质上是依靠学习和训练来获得能力的AIGC工具永无可能具备创造性功能[1,2]。

**参考文献**

[1] 程京德，“ChatGPT的原理局限性：它永远不会做什么？”，微信公众号“数理逻辑与哲学逻辑”，科学网博客，2023年2月10日。

[2] 程京德，“论“创造/创作/创新”及 AIGC 工具的“创造性””，微信公众号“数理逻辑与哲学逻辑”，科学网博客，2023年3月8日。

微信公众号“数理逻辑与哲学逻辑”

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