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248 principles of instructional design

已有 286 次阅读 2019-6-11 20:57 |系统分类:科研笔记

Principles of Instructional Design

Fourth Edition

Rober M.Gagne

Leslie J.Briggs

Walter W.Wager

pages 281-

group instruction

for learners of whatever sort,the attempt is usually made in group instruction to ensure that each instructional event is as effective as possible in supporting learning by all members of the group

两人小组一般用于tutoring

三到八人小组一般用于discussion

15人或以上大组一般用于lecture


characteristics of group instruction

patterns of interaction in isntructional groups

the size of an instrctional group is an important determinant of the environment in which learning occurs

variations in instructional events

any or all of the events of instrcution may be expected to vary with group size,both in their form and in their feasibility of use

diagnosing entry capabilities of students

entry capabilities of students may be assessed at the beginning of a course of study or at the start of a semester or school year

student capabilities may be assessed in a finer sense,and weaknesses or gaps diagnosed just prior to the beginning of each new topic of a course

simple tests or probes can be administrated to students to reveal specific gaps in enabling skills

instruction in the two person group

instructional groups of two persons consist of one student and one instructor or tutor(一对一?)

events of instruction in tutoring

flexible adjustment of instructional events

some of the main features

1.gaining attention

immediate adjustments of the stimulation necessary to bring about attention can be made if the student's attention wanders

2.informing the learner of the objective

repeating the objective in different terms or by demonstrating an instance of the performance expected when the learning is completed

3.stimulating recall of prerequisite learnings

4.presenting the stimulus materials

the tutor can give emphasis to lesson components by changes in oral delivery,by pointing,by drawing a picture,and in many other ways

5.providing learning guidance

6.eliciting the performance

7.providing feedback

the learner can be told,with a high degree of accuracy,what is right or wrong with his performance and given directions that permit correction of errors or inadequacies

8.assessing the performance

不同时间段

多次重复

9.enabling retention and transfer


the flow of insturction in tutoring

it is evident that the two person instructional group permits maximal control of instructional events by the tutor


isntruction in the small group


events of instruction in small groups

procedures of diagnosis may have been used to select the members of a group for small group instruction

by suitbale questioning of each student in turn,the teacher is able to judge with a fair degree of accuracy that the necessary enabling skills are present in all students

gaining attention关注到每一个人

informing the learner of the objective.the teacher can express the objective of the lesson and ensure that it is understood by each member of the group

stimulating recall of prerequisite learning.轮流提问学生,the teacher is able to fairly sure that necessary enabling skills and relevant items of supportive information are accessible in the working memories of all students

presenting the stimulus materials,以合适的方法出示学习材料,but without necessarily being tailored to individual student characteristics

providing learning guidance

present a communication to the group or to members of the group in turn

eliciting the performance.eliciting each student's performance is to do it one by one

providing feedback

assessing the performance

enhacing retention and transfer







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