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249 instructional design

已有 291 次阅读 2019-6-11 20:57 |系统分类:科研笔记

Principles of Instructional Design

Fourth Edition

Rober M.Gagne

Leslie J.Briggs

Walter W.Wager

pages 293-301

instruction in the large group

teachers of larger groups cannot be sure they have gained the attention of all students, they cannot always be sure that all students have recalled prerequisites or that the semantic encoding they suggest will work well with all student,the strategy of instruction in a large group is ,therefore,a probabilistic strategy,instruction so designed will be effective on the average but cannot by itself be ensured as effective for each individual learner

instructional events in the large group

测验

the more frequent and regular assessment(followed by corrective feedback) can be,the better will be the outcome of learning

the most common mode of instruction for the large group is the lecture

the lecturer can inspire an audience with his own enthusiasm,relate his field of study to human prupose(and,thus,to student interests),and relate theory and research to practical problems

the good lecture can attain certain instructional objectives very well because it is able to implement certain instructional events effectively

the lecturer can remind students of what they need to recall as prerequistie knowledge,but he cannot take the steps necessary to ensure such recall

the relecturer can encourage students to practice the capabilities they are learning,but he cannot require them to exhibit the performances that reflect what they have learned

it is clear that what usually happens in the use of recitation with large class is that the necessary events of instruction affect only a few students on any one occasion,time does not permit the teacher to allow everyone to take a turn

features of tutoring in large groups

mastery learning

directly attempts to introduce precision in the management of instructional events 

teaching diagnostic progress testing and feedback with correction procedures

通过测试了解学生学习目标的达成情况

tutoring versus other methods

enhanced prerequisites

enhanced cues(provision of explanations of the concepts and rules being learned) and student participation

enhanced cues,participation,and reinforcement(corrective feedback)

ensuring review of prerequistie

employing student participation as a part of learning guidance

enhancing cues to retrieval by employing elaboration of concepts and rules




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