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246 principles of instructional design

已有 354 次阅读 2019-6-8 22:18 |系统分类:科研笔记

Principles of Instructional Design

Fourth Edition

Rober M.Gagne

Leslie J.Briggs

Walter W.Wager

pages 234-253

lesson planning for learning outcomes

the sequence of capabilities exemplified by the learning hierarchy(for intellectual skills) or by a set of identified prerequisites(for other types of outcomes) is used as a basis for planning a series of lessons

instructional events and effective learning conditions

the most general purpose for what we have called the events of instruction is that of arranging the external conditions of learning in such a way as to ensure that learning will occur

effective learning conditions for incorporation into lesson having objectives of intellectual skills and cognitive startegies

discrimination  

recall of responses

presentation of same and different sitmuli,with emphasis on distinctive features

repetition of same and different sitmuli,with feedback

concrete concpet

recall of discrimination of relevant object features

presentation of several instances and noninstances,varying in irrelevant object qualities

identification of instances by student,with feedback

defined concept

recall of component concepts

demonstration of the concept,using its definition

demonstration of concept example by student

rule

recall of subordinate concepts and rules

demonstration of rule,using verbal statement

demonstration of rule application by student

higher-order rule

recall of relevant subordinate rules

presentation of a novel learning task or problem

demonstration of new rule in problem solution by student

cognitive strategy

recall of relevant rules and concepts

verbal statement or demonstration of strategy

practice of strategy in novel situation


lesson of intellectual skills objectives

effective learning conditions for incorporation into lesson having objectives of verbal information,attitudes,and motor skills

verbal information

names or labels

recall of verbal associations

encoding by student-relating name to image or meaningful sentence

using name in context of other knowledge

facts

recall of context of related meaningful information

performance of reinstating fact in larger context of verbal information

using fact in context of other knowledge

knowledge

recall of context of related information

performance of reinstating new knowledge in the context of related information

using knowledge by relating it to other facts and bodies of knowledge

attitude

recall of verbal information and intellectual skills relevant to chosen personal actions

establishment or recall of respect for source (usually a human model)

reward for personal action,either by direct expenence or variously by observation of the human model

motor skill

recall of responses and part skills

establishment or recall of executive subroutine(procedural rule)

practice of total skill


steps in lesson planning

suggesting that teachers employ a planning sheet that will contain the following elements

1.statement of the objective of the lesson and its classification as to domain of learning outcome

2.a list of the instructional events to be employed

3.a list of the media,materials,and activities by which each event is to be accomplished

4.notes on teacher roles and activities(prescriptions for isntruction)


the objective of the lesson

some lesson may have a single objective,whereas others may include several related objectives


listing the instructional events

although the events of instruction represent a crucial element in the design model,it is also of great importance that the manner in which such events are planned reflect the best estimate of the capabilities and entering competencies of the students


example of a lesson for a concrete concept objective(p.238)

gaining attention

inform the learner of the objective

stimulate recall of prerequisites

presenting the stimulus material

providing learning guidance

eliciting performance

providing feedback

assessing performance

enhancing retention and transfer


choosing media materials and activities

mediated instruction requires the designer to attend to all the events of instruction as well as the manner in which they will be operationalized in the materials

how will i accomplish this event with these students?


examples of lesson planning sheets for various types of learning outcomes

example of a lesson for a defined concept(p.240)

example of a lesson for teaching a rule(p.241)

example of a lesson for a problem-solving skill(p.242)

example of a lesson for a verbal information objectives(p.243)

example of a lesson for an attitude objective(p.244)


integrative goals:lesson planning for multiple objectives

how lesson design for multiple objectives from different domains differs from lesson design for single objectives


planning instructional activities

the main difference in planning for multiple-objectives and single objective lessons is that the teacher or designer must plan how to present the events of instruction for multiple objectives

an instructional activity is something the teacher does,or has the student do ,representing one or more envents of instruction for one or more objectives


sequencing instructional activities and selecting media

media decisions become most important when attending to whether the learners are readers or nonreaders and the consequence requirements for visual display,practice,and feedback


roles and activities in instructional development

produce a lesson plan in which all the needed instructional events occur

when new instructional materials are developed,the instructional design and the subject matter expert work together in analyzing the learning task,deciding on an appropriate delivery system,and preparing prescriptions for the lesson in a course of study






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