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228 principles of instructional design

已有 385 次阅读 2019-5-21 21:35 |系统分类:科研笔记

Principles of Instructional Design

Fourth Edition

Rober M.Gagne

Leslie J.Briggs

Walter W.Wager

pages 1-19

part one

introduction to instructional systems

instruction is a human undertaking whose prupose is to help people learn.


instruction is a set of events that effect learners in such a way that learning is facilitated.


instruction may include events that are generated by a page of print,by a picture,by a television program,or by a combination of physical objects,among other things,of course,a teacher may play an essential role in the arrangement of any of these event,or,as already mentioned,the learners may be able to manage instructional events themselves


instruction must be planned if it is to be effective


instruction for the support of learning must be something that is planned rather than haphazard,the learning it aids should bring all individuals closer to the goals of optimal use of their talents,enjoyment of life,and adjustment to the physical and social environment.the purpose of planned instruction is to help each person develop as fully as possible,in his or her own individual direction


basic assumptions about instructional design

instructional design must be aimed at aiding the learning of the individual

instructional design has phases that are both immediate and long-range

systematically designed instruction can greatly affect individual human development

instructional design is to ensure that no one is "educationally disadvantaged" and that all students have equal opportunities to use their individual talents to the fullest degree

instructional design should be conducted by means of a systems approach

designed instruction must be based on knowledge of how human beings learn    


some learning principles


some time-tested learning principles

contiguity

the principle of contiguity states that the stimulus situation must be presented simultaneously with the desired response

repitition

the principle of repitition states that the stimulus situation and its response need to be repeated,for learning to be improved and for retention to be made more certain

reinforcement

learning of a new act is strengthened when the occurrence of that act is followed by a satisfying state of affairs(that is ,a reward)


the conditions of learning

instruction must take into account a whole set of factors that influence learning


the process of learning


control process

the internal process are as follow

reception of stimuli by receptors

registration of information by sensory registers

selective perception for storage in short-term memory

rehearsal to maintain information in short-term memory

semantic encoding for storage in long-term memory

retrieval from long-term memory to working memory

response generation to effectors

performance in the learner's environment

control of processes through executive strategies


instruction and learning processes

the event of instruction,these events involve the following kinds of activities in  roughly this order, relating to the learning processes previously listed:

stimulation to gain attention to ensure the reception of stimuli

informing learner of the learning objective,to establish appropriate expectancies

reminding learners to previously learned content for retrieval from long-term memory

clear and distinctive presentation of material to ensure selective perception

guidance of learning by suitable semantic encoding 

eliciting performance,involving response generation

providing feedback about performance

assessing the performance,involving additional response feedback occassions

arranging variety of practice to aid future retrieval and transfer


the contributions of memory

five kinds of learned capabilities

intellectual skills:which permit the learner to carry out symbolically controlled procedures

cognitive strategies:the means by which learners exercise control over their own learning processes

verbal information:the facts and organized "knowledge of the world" stored in the learner's memory

attitude:the internal states that influence the personal action choices a learner makes

motor skill:the movements of skeletal muscles organized to accomplish purposeful actions

multiple aims for instruction must be recognized,the human learner needs to attain several varieties of learned capabilities


intellectual skills as building blocks for instruction

an intellectual skill cannot be learned by being simply looked up or provide to the learner by a verbal communication,it must be learned,recalled,and put into use at the proper time

the learning of one skill aids the learning of other "higher-order" skills

intellectual skills are rich in transfer effects,which bring about the building of increasingly complex structures of intellectual competence

intellectual skills can be reliably observed(learner is able to do)


the rational for instructional design

what is being learned


the derivation of an instructional system

the needs for instruction are investigated as a first step

goals of instruction may be translated into a framework for a curriculum and for the individual courses contained in it

objectives of courses are achieved through learning

the identification of target objectives and the enabling objectives that support them and contribute to their learning makes possible the grouping of these objectives into units of comparable types

the determination of types of capabilities to be learned,and the inference of necessary learning conditions for them,make possible the planning of sequences of instruction

continuation of instructional planning proceeds to the design of units of instruction that are smaller in scope and thus more detailed in character

once a courses has been designed in terms of target objectives,detailed planning of instruction for the individual lesson can proceed

the additional element required for completion of instructional design is a set of procedures for assessment of what students have learned.

the design of lessons and courses with their accompanying techniques of assessing learning outcomes makes possible the planning of entire systems








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