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**The Fundamental Theory of Artificial Intelligence - Logic Structure and Logic Engineering**

**By Dong H. Liu, Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, China**

**Abstract**

1. Introduction to bionic logic, including the simulation of people, society and life as a guiding ideology; 2. Defining the logical structure as the object of research, with logic mechanics as the research principles; 3. Researching the environment of the logical structure through logical fields and logical networks; 4. Researching the communication of logical structures through logical networks and logical main lines; 5. Proposing the data logic; 6. Proposing research into the logic of logical structures using the structural diagram of the logical equation; 7. Developing the theory of life activity in a logical structure, including information reasoning and its corresponding control structure, as well as structural reasoning; 8. Proposing the lifecycle theory of the logical structure and researching the clock equation; 9. Exploring the intelligence of logical structures; 10. Researching the mathematical forms of logical structures; 11. Proposing logic engineering; 12. Researching the significance of artificial intelligence; 13. Researching the significance of human methodology.

Keywords: Bionic Logic; Structural Diagram of Logical Equation; Data Logic; Intelligence

**1. Logic Structure**

**1.1 Structure of Bionic Logic**

**1.1.1 Bionic Logic**

**1.1.1.1 Purpose of Bionic Logic**

To propose novel approaches for developing artificial intelligence that meets the demands of the current era, replaces the algorithms and data science derived from the industrial society with innovative ones, addresses the colossal challenges of astronomical computing power demands, and solves the problems that unthinkably huge volumes of data are often needed to train the intelligence of larger models.

The algorithm created by bionic logic is a logical structure composed of logical equations. Actual machines can be constructed based on this logical structure. In the era of artificial intelligence, the development of intelligent machines enables an algorithm to be created that can generate the directed graph of the machine logic equation, with which it may become possible to manufacture corresponding intelligent machines.

Data science created by bionic logic replaces raw data with data classes, and data analysis with object analysis. Data classes exist within the variable set of logical equations, while object analysis is conducted by means of logical equation analysis rather than formula function analysis. Each data class corresponds to a set of related logical equations, which in turn correspond to a specific structure or life activity of an intelligent machine, or even a clock equation and a specific lifecycle; that is, object analysis transitions into logical equation analysis, and logical equation analysis extends to life analysis.

**1.1.1.2 Logical Equations**

Logical equations are established on the foundation of physicochemical and biological equations, and show the decisive effects of certain variables on others. Assigning values to certain variables allows the derivation of values for other variables, which can be used in the physicochemical and biological equations to describe the structure, activity and lifecycle of matter or life. When elevated to logical equations, they elucidate the structure, activity, and lifecycle of logical structures, and when applied to artificial intelligence, they expound upon the structure, activity, and lifecycle of intelligent machines. Therefore, logical equations serve as the basic logic for both logical structures and intelligent machines.

Note that logical equations encompass not only objective equations such as physicochemical and biological equations, but also subjective equations, such as belief equations and emotion equations generated by means of subjective initiative. Subjective equations reflect the logic of the human brain and can also become the logic of advanced logical structures and intelligent machine consciousness.

Logical equations constitute a variable set, in which possible values of the variables are stored. These values form data classes, consisting of the description set, the attribute set and the functional set. The data class associated with the variable set undergoes changes resulting from communication of the logical equations.

**1.1.1.3 Structural Diagram of Logical Equations**

This is a directed graph, with each node representing one or a set of logical equations. If the variables of one logical equation or set of equations determine those of another logical equation or set, then there exists a directed path from one node to another. Path weights can be added to indicate the order, and by listing all logical equations and marking the relationships between variables with directed paths, the structural diagram of the logical equation can be completed.

**1.1.1.4 Structural File of Logical Equations**

This is a directed graph file with each theme having one directed graph file. In this context, the directed graph represents the structural diagram of the logical equation. Different graphs can illustrate the required relationships, while connections between variables across graphs are denoted using directed paths with associated weights to indicate the order. This constitutes the structural file of the logical equation.

**1.1.1. 5 Bionic Logic**

This is a study of logic structure that references biology, which is also known as biology in the context of artificial intelligence. The associated steps are as follows: ① Search for biological equations. Biological equations represent the logical patterns of life that have evolved over hundreds of millions of years on Earth, and these patterns are considered to be more sophisticated than the logical rules artificially studied by humans. To design the logical structures and logical equations of artificial intelligence, it is required to first search for the biological equations of life; ② In addition to the biological equations themselves, it is also crucial to search for the relationship between the variables of the biological equations; ③ Elevate biological equations and their relationships to a directed graph composed of logical equations and logical equation relationships, that is, a structural diagram of the logical equation; and ④ For instance, the walking movements of a human do not require artificial design, but how the human body walks can be studied. The logical equations and equation sets, along with their mutual relationships, derived from the observed regularities in the movements of various human bodies, result in a directed graph, which serves as the structural diagram of the logical equation for the bionic logic associated with human walking.

**1.1.1. 6 Simulating Life**

This is a fundamental part of bionic logic that shapes both primary and intermediate logical structures, and also forms the primary and intermediate structures of artificial intelligence. The steps for simulating life are as follows: ① Search for the biological equations and relationships of cells, which can generate the corresponding directed graph files, with each theme having one directed graph. Different graphs can illustrate the required relationships. This file represents the structural diagram of the cell, encompassing its structure, activities, and lifecycle; ② Simulate the structural diagram of the cell to create the logical structure and the structural diagram of the logical equation for the primary structural elements of artificial intelligence; ③ Study the relationships between cells, create a directed graph illustrating the relationship among files of structural diagrams of cells, form a primary structure for life, and simulate this structure to create the primary structure of the logical structure and artificial intelligence; ④ Search for the biological equations and relationships of biological tissue, which can generate the corresponding directed graph files, with each theme having one directed graph. Different graphs can illustrate the required relationships. This file represents the structural diagram of biological tissue, encompassing its structure, activities, and lifecycle; ⑤ Also search for biological equations representing the relationship between biological tissues and cells, form a structural diagram for the equations and add it to the structural file for biological tissue, establish the relationship with other structural diagrams, and generate a comprehensive structural file for biological tissue; and ⑥ Simulate the structural diagram for biological tissue to construct the required logical structures and the structural diagram of the logical equation for the intermediate structure of artificial intelligence.

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**1.1.1.7 Simulating Humans**

The construction of logical structures, and of advanced structures for artificial intelligence, are required to simulate human beings. As an advanced form of bionic logic, the steps for simulating humans are as follows: ① Utilize the theory of simulating life to simulate the cells and tissues of human beings, forming both primary and intermediate structures; ② Search for the relationship equations between different tissues, to form a structural diagram that connects various tissue structure files and thus create an integrated intermediate structure; ③ Search for the biological equations and relationships of brain tissue, which can generate the directed graph files, with each theme having one directed graph. Different graphs can illustrate the required relationships. This file represents the structural diagram of the brain tissue, encompassing its structure, activities, and lifecycle; ④ Also search for biological equations representing the relationship between brain tissue and cells, and between brain tissue and other tissues, creating a structural diagram for the equations; add this to the structural file for brain tissue, then establish the relationship with other structural diagrams, and generate a comprehensive structural file for brain tissue; and ⑤ Simulate the structural diagram for brain tissue to construct the logical structures and the structural diagram of the logical equation for the intermediate structure of artificial intelligence.

**1.1.1. 8 Principle of Bionic Logic**

① Bionic logic can be partially simulated as required. ② Simulation can be conducted in an iterative manner from simple to complex. ③ Simulation can understand as much as it simulates. The parts that cannot be simulated are temporarily designated by a manual design, and in the future, as the relevant research advances, can be replaced with simulations, creating a continuous process.

**1.1.2. Simulating Society**

In this theory, it is considered that the environment of the logical structure is similar to that of human society. Simulating human society involves constructing a logical structure within the simulated society, and the interaction between humans is simulated to construct a logical structure within that society, including the interaction between logical structures, and between logical structure and humans. Simulation is an iterative, infinite and continuously evolving process. Following this principle, a simulated society within the artificial intelligence structure can also be constructed.

**1.1.3 Simulating Human Life**

The lifecycle of advanced logical structures is simulated as a human life with various lifecycle stages. The lifecycle of primary and intermediate structures within the advanced logical structures is also simulated in a manner which is similar to the different stages in human life. The lifespan of the brain in advanced logical structures is modeled after the lifecycle of the human brain. The clock equation structural diagram file for humans is simulated to construct the clock equation structural diagram file for advanced logical structures. Similarly, the clock equation structural diagram file for artificial intelligence can also be constructed.

**1.2 Logical Structures and Logical Mechanics**

**1.2.1 Macroscopic Form of Logical Structures**

**1.2.1.1 Using mathematical logic to construct logical structures with three hierarchical levels: advanced logical structures, intermediate logical structures and primary logical structures.**

Primary Logical Structure = Elements of Various Actual Structures + Inherent Logical Association (Formula 1);

Intermediate Logical Structure = Primary Logical Structure + Environmental Variables + Inherent Logical Association (Environmental variables are derived from the logical equations of the logical field) (Formula 2);

Advanced Logical Structure = Intermediate Logical Structure + Subjective Initiative Variables + Inherent Logical Association (Subjective initiative variables are derived from the logical equation for brain tissue) (Formula 3);

① Lifeless Objective Structure

Primary Logical Structure = Intermediate Logical Structure = Advanced Logical Structure (Formula 4);

② Subjective Structure of Animals and Plants

Intermediate Logical Structure = Advanced Logical Structure (Formula 5);

③ Subjective Structure of Humans

Advanced logical structure, composed of three hierarchical structures: primary structure, intermediate structure and advanced structure.

Advanced Logical Structure = Primary Logical Structure + Intermediate Logical Structure + Advanced Logical Structure (Formula 6);

**1.2.1.2 Logical Structures in the Logical Field**

Logical structures exist within the logical field, and the two have a mutual effect on each other. Logical fields possess the attributes of a logical network. Logical structures interact with one another through the mutual transmission of logic between the logical network and other logical structures with the modification of the transmission mode. The structural file of the logical equation, structural diagram of the logical equations, logical equations and logical equation variable values act as the carriers of the logic. The logical structures then carry out the activities and lifecycle processes within the logical fields and networks.

The logical field is a collection of filtering conditions for the primary structure based on the environmental variable values generated by the logical equations, encompassing all operations required by the environment. The filtering conditions first determine the required attributes or functions, and then, based on these attributes or functions, identify the logical classes of the primary structures. They then complete the filtering of logical classes and form intermediate structures. Logical structures undergo filtering to adapt to the environment.

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**1.2.1.3 Primary Structure**

Primary Logical Structure = Elements of Various Actual Structures + Inherent Logical Association;

The primary structure needs to establish basic elements and a basic element set, that is to say a set of basic elements that is based on the scientific theory of granularity. Here, the elements are described using the concept of element logic classes, with the element logic class defined as follows:

Element logic Description Collection (Description Set) + Element Attribute Operation Collection (Attribute Set) + Element Functional Operation Collection (functional set) (Formula 7);

Thus, the basic element set is considered to be a collection of element logic classes.

Primary Structure = {All element logic classes + Integration of all element logic classes with other element logic classes + Integration of all element logic classes with Integrated Logical Classes + Integration of All Integrated Logical Classes with other Integrated Logical Classes} (Formula 8);

Elements of various actual structures refer to the two objects involved in all participating integrations. Inherent logical association refers to the method of integrated operation, which can be function theory, algebraic structure theory (algebraic systems, semi-groups, groups and subgroups, Abelian groups and cyclic groups, homomorphisms and isomorphisms of algebraic systems, rings and fields), lattices and Boolean algebra, graph theory, etc. Innovative methods can also be introduced.

Primary structures are also referred to as objective structures.

**1.2.1.4 Intermediate Structure**

Intermediate Logical Structure = Primary Logical Structure + Environmental Variables + Inherent Logical Associations;

The structure of the primary logical structure is as follows:

Primary Structure = {All element logic classes + Integration of All element logic classes with other element logic classes + Integration of All element logic classes with Integrated Logical Classes + Integration of All Integrated Logical Classes with other Integrated Logical Classes};

Environmental variables generate logical fields, which in turn generate a set of filtering conditions for the elements of the primary structure collection. The filtered primary element classes become the tissues and organs of the primary element classes, considering a logical structure that adapts to the environment for survival. Filtering takes the form of logical equations, which are filtered by variable values.

Inherent logical association refers to the filtering operation.

Intermediate Structure = Filtered Primary Structure Collection (Formula 9);

Intermediate structures are also referred to as survival structures.

**1.2.1.5 Advanced Structure**

Advanced Logical Structure = Intermediate Logical Structure + Subjective Initiative Variables + Inherent Logical Association;

The intermediate logical structure is as follows:

Intermediate Structure = Filtered Primary Structure Collection;

Subjective initiative variables are generated by logical equations for brain tissues, and then become a collection of filtering conditions for the elements of the intermediate structure collection. Upon execution, intermediate filtering precedes advanced filtering, which is the requirement for the brain tissue to filter intermediate tissue structures for the sake of subjective and objective activities. The filtered intermediate tissues participate in the current life activity. The advanced structures select intermediate tissues for subjective initiative, which is then filtered by the variable values of the logical equations of the bran tissue.

Inherent logical association refers to the filtering operation.

Advanced Structure = Filtered Intermediate Structure Collection (Formula 10);

Advanced structures are also referred to as subjective structures.

**1.2.1.6 Subjective Initiative**

Subjective initiative is the collection of filtering conditions for an intermediate structure collection generated by the values of subjective initiative variables. The variable values are generated by the logical equations of the brain tissue, including all operations needed for subjective initiative. The filtering conditions first determine the required attributes or functions, and then identify logical classes based on these attributes or functions, which then complete the filtering of logical classes and form the intermediate tissues required for advanced structural activities. Filtering is carried out by the logical equations of the bran tissue, which are filtered by variable values.

**1.2.2 Microscopic Form of Logical Structures**

**1.2.2.1 The Theory of Simulating Life and Simulating Humans**

The microscopic forms of constructing logical structures based on the theory of simulating life and simulating humans include elements such as the composition of cells. These have functions which include learning, memory, sending and receiving signals, and a clock. For instance, in both animals and humans, there are nerve cells and brain cells, with the brain possessing such capabilities as learning and memory, among others.

**1.2.2.2 Microscopic Form of Primary Structures**

In the macroscopic form of primary structures, the logical class of elements can be represented as:

Element logic Description Collection (Description Set) + Element Attribute Operation Collection (Attribute Set) + Element Functional Operation Collection (functional set);

After introducing the theory of cell structures, the element logic class can be represented as:

Element logic class = {Element Description Collection (Description Set) + Element Attribute Operation Collection (Attribute Set) + Element Functional Operation Collection (functional set) } + {Storage Set + Mailbox + Logical Equation Structural Diagram of the Element Storage Set + Clock Equation Structural Diagram of the Element Storage Set} (Formula 11);

Here, the forms of the description set, attribute set and functional set are all structural diagrams of the logical equations. Data is stored in the variables of the logic equations, with these variables all consisting of data logic classes, in which the description set, attribute set and functional set can all store data. The data itself is also a data logic class.

The mailbox here can send and receive both logical messages and other logic, including substances. During the integration, the storage set, mailbox and clock can all be integrated according to certain rules.

Notes:

① The primary structure of the logical structure is composed of elements, which should be guided by a scientific granularity theory. Elements constitute an element set, which represents the collection of these elements;

② Data logic Set + Attribute Set + Functional set (Formula 12);

The description set is a collection of various descriptions of the element. The attribute set for the element is derived from attribute operations, while the functional set is derived from functional operations. For example, the description set could represent a person, the attribute set then represents the life of this person, and the functional set represents the work of this person;

③ To establish a theory that encompasses elements, element integration and integrated element integration, the mathematical logic of the Set Theory is used to establish the element sets, after which a rational theory constructed on the foundation of the Set Theory is used to integrate elements and integrated elements, and finally form a whole. The function theory, algebraic structure theory, various group theories, homorphism and isomorphism theories, ring and field theories, lattice and Boolean algebra theories and other algebraic system theories based on the rational theory are used to investigate various laws of the structure. The ultimate result is represented by a structural diagram of the logical equation;

④ Understanding the primary structure requires attribute sets and functional sets. The attribute set is a collection of attribute operations for elements, integrated elements, integrated element integration and the whole, and the functional set is the collection of function operations for elements, integrated elements, integrated element integration and the whole, both of which are represented by structural diagram of the logical equation, laying the foundation for the establishment of intermediate structures.

⑤ The microscopic primary structure is usually the objective composition of a logical structure, which is then filtered by the logical field to become a microscopic intermediate structure; the microscopic intermediate structure transforms into the microscopic advanced structure through the filtering of subjective initiative. The filtering of subjective initiative is analogous to the self-structuring of plant tissues during the photosynthesis, or to the coordination and utilization of various structures in the human body during a visit to a restaurant for a meal.

**1.2.2.3 Microscopic Form of the Intermediate Structure**

The macroscopic form of the intermediate structure is as follows:

Intermediate Structure = Filtered Primary Structure Collection;

The microscopic form of an intermediate structure tissue is as follows:

Intermediate Tissue = {Tissue Description Set + Tissue Attribute Set + Tissue Functional Set} + {Memory + Mailbox + Logical Equation Structural Diagram of the Memory + Clock Equation Structural Diagram of Memory} (Formula 13);

Where the forms of the description set, attribute set and functional set are structural diagrams of the logical equations. Data is stored in the variables of the logic equations, and the variables of the logic equations are all data logic classes, within which the description set, attribute set and functional set can all store data.

The microscopic form of the logical fields is that of a primary structure filtered by the microscopic form of the environment. The filtering here can be applied to the description set, attribute set, functional set, storage set, mailbox, and clock, or any combination of the above.

The microscopic form of the intermediate structure depends on the microscopic logical fields and microscope primary structures, which is the environment filtering generated by the logical fields on the microscopic primary structures, while the filtered primary structures are transformed into intermediate structures.

**1.2.2.4 Advanced Logical Structure**

Macroscopic Form:

Advanced Logical Structure = Intermediate Logical Structure + Subjective Initiative Variables + Inherent Logical Association;

Microscopic Form:

Advanced Structure of A Life Activity = Brain Tissue + Nerves + Filtered Intermediate Tissue (Formula 14);

Brain Tissue = {Description Set + Attribute Set + Functional set} + {Brain Memory + Nerves + Logical Equation Structural Diagram for Brain Memory + Clock Equation Structural Diagram for Brain Memory} (Formula 15);

Where the forms of the description set, attribute set and functional set are structural diagrams of the logical equations. Data is stored in the variables of the logic equations, and the variables of the logic equations are all data logic classes, within which the description set, attribute set and functional set can all store data.

Following the theory of human simulation, an advanced logical structure utilizes the generation of subjective initiative variables to form brain structures and memory structures. The editing of memory structures gives rise to a learning function, while the inherent logical association of advanced structures can be used to generate nerves and their associated functions.

The microscopic form of advanced structures primarily consists of subjective initiative structures, which are often referred to as brain tissue or intelligence.

**1.2.3 Logical Mechanics**

**1.2.3.1 Logical Force**

Natural logical fields refer to the interaction of matter as a logical force. Social logical fields refer to the interaction between humans as logical forces. Logical forces also encompass the combined effects of natural logical fields and social logical fields, including the resultant force of logical forces. The effect of logical forces on logical structures is reflected in logical changes and modification transmission within the logical structure. Logical changes refer to changes in logical equations related to logical structures, while the modification transmission reflects the impact of logical forces on logical equations related to logical structures.

**1.2.3.2 Logical Mechanics**

Logical mechanics is generated by introducing logical truth values 1 or 0 into logic structure or logic engineering. If the truth value of a structural diagram of the logical equation is true (1), this indicates that the diagram can be implemented, while if the truth value of a structural diagram of the logical equation is false (0), this indicates that the diagram cannot be implemented, which is equivalent to the principles of mechanics in construction engineering. To establish and develop this new theory of logical mechanics, it is required to summarize the subjective and objective laws that can be successfully constructed from the structural diagram of the logical equations. These subjective and objective principles are referred to as mathematical logic, which serves as the objective foundation for the existence, operation and development of structural diagrams of the logical equations. It plays the same role as the physical mechanics or building mechanics that support building safety, so the mathematical logic that supports the structural diagram of logical equations is also known as logical mechanics. The process of creating the structural diagram of logical equations has an optimal path, which is known as the logical process, and the study of the logical process is known as logic engineering.

**1.2.4 Mathematical Form of the Logical Structure**

Logical equation structural diagrams describe various logical equations in mathematical form, serving two purposes. One adapts to the principles of von Neumann computing, and by extension also the principles of future quantum computers and biological computers; the other adapts to the needs of mathematical logical expression, facilitating the calculation and judgement of truth values.

**1.2.5 Focusing on Logical Structure and Logical Mechanics**

Considering all objects as logical structures, some as objective objects with only a primary structure, some as low-level subjective objects with intermediate structures, and some as advanced subject objects with advanced structures, this approach studies the subjective and objective logical laws of logical structures, which constitutes the essence of focusing on logical structures.

There are two paths to establishing a logical structure:

First, establish the primary structure, then establish a set of filtering conditions for the logical field, form an intermediate structure through filtering the primary structure, then establish a set of filtering conditions for subjective initiative. Finally, an advanced structure can be formed through filtering the intermediate structure; this is called growth logic.

Second, determine the functional requirements of advanced structures. These requirements generate a set of filtering conditions for subjective initiative. Functional requirements of intermediate structures can then be established based on the subjective initiative filtering set. The intermediate requirements can then set up the primary structure through the filtering conditions of the logical field. The process of establishing primary structures involves the use of attributes or functions to search for logical classes, and then establishing the intermediate and advanced structures by following the first path; this is a form of devolution logic.

Both constitute the research paths for logical structure and logical engineering; this research serves as the guiding ideology for logical structures.

The interaction of logical structures is explored through logical mechanics, researching the mutual shaping of logical structures and logical fields, assessing the validity of all logical equation structural diagrams, determining their existence or feasibility, and further examining their truthfulness; this constitutes the research field of logical mechanics.

**1.3 Logical Fields and Logical Networks**

**1.3.1 Logical Fields**

**1.3.1.1 What is the Logical Field**

The logical field is an environment composed of logical structures. Interactions exist between logical structures, which intertwine to form a field. The logical field is composed of the natural field and the social field, as well as a combined field that combines the natural and social fields. The logical field influences the creation of a logical environment for logical structures, giving rise to the phenomenon of mutual shaping between logical structures and the logical field. Logical structures interact with logical field through perceiving logic transmissions, which is transmitted outside logical structure through logical networks and inside logical structure through logical bus. The logic of logical structure perception is a kind of data logic, including logical equation structure files, logical equation structure diagram, logical equation and logical equation variable values, etc., and logical field can be made into logical equation structure diagram.

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**1.3.1.2 Modification Transmission**

After the logic is transmitted from one logical structure to another, the receiving logical structure will modify the logic emitted by the preceding logical structure that transmitted it. For instance, the sun exerts a gravitational force on the Earth, and the Earth, in turn, exerts a gravitational force on the moon. When the gravitational force exerted by the sun on the Earth changes, this may result in the gravitational force exerted by the Earth on the moon. Here, the gravity is the data logic of the gravitational field carrying the logic. When the Earth undergoes modifications after receiving the logic transmitted from the sun, it subsequently changes this logic before transmitting it to the moon. The interaction of physical fields commonly involve logic networks and modification transmission, and the same applies to social fields. Assuming that the impact of Chinese laws on Country A is represented by the legal logic carried by the legal data logic, then the impact of Country A on Country B's legal system involves the transmission of legal logic. In this scenario, the legal logic transmitted to Country A from China can undergo modification, subsequently affecting the legal logic transmitted by Country A to Country B. Therefore, research into integrated fields can also be approached in a similar manner.

The logic or data logic transmitted through logical networks can be a logical equation structure file, a logical equation structure diagram, a logical equation, and a logical equation variable value.

**1.3.1.3 Natural Logic Field**

The natural logic field is the field theory of physics, fundamentally composed of matter. The action of the field lies in the interaction between matter.

**1.3.1.4 Social Logic Field**

A social logic field is another study of human society, fundamentally composed of humans. The action of this field lies in the interaction between humans.

**1.3.1.5 Logical Field Generated by Perception**

For the logical structure to mutually shape the logical field, one must first perceive the logical field. This perception includes the perception of matter in the natural logical field, of humans in the social fields, and the combined perception of logical structures to both natural and social logical fields. For instance, feeling cold is a perception of the natural logical field, while sensing mistreatment from a superior is a perception of the social logical field. If an individual experiences both the the sensation of cold and the perception of mistreatment from a superior, this represents a combined perception of both natural and social logical fields.

Logical structures perceive the logical field by means of data logic, which can be a logical equation structure file, a logical equation structure diagram, a logical equation and a logical equation variable value. Means of perception include external logical networks and the internal logical main line of logical structures.

**1.3.1.6 Environmental Effect of the Logical Field**

The logical structure and logical field mutually shape each other. The logical field determines the existence of the logical structure by either supporting or opposing its activities or lifecycle. For instance, in the logical structure of the digestive system, the disposal of waste simultaneously provides the necessary food, thereby generating environmental effects. Conversely, the logical structure, in turn, affects the logical field through its activities or lifecycle, thereby contributing to the shaping of the environment. For example, human beings destroy forests for survival, but they now also try to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

**1.3.1.7 Requirements and Control of Logical Fields**

① Requirements of Logical Fields

The logical structure and logical field mutually shape each other, and the influence of the logical field on the logical structure includes the shaping of requirements, which are expressed through data logic. For example, the data logic of cold weather prompts the need for people to wear more clothing, and the data logic of pursing higher education generates the need for diligence in academic endeavors.

② How to Obtain the Requirements of Logical Fields

Steps to obtain the requirements of logical fields: First, obtain the relevant data logic through logical network communication; then, analyze the data logic and obtain the requirements by analyzing the results. Finally, the requirements can be fulfilled by aligning them with the law of life activities.

③ Control of the Logical Field

The mutual shaping of logical structures and logical field includes the control exerted by the logical field over the logical structure, such as Earth's gravity and human laws. The control from the logical field is expressed through data logic and transmitted through logical networks. For instance, an individual's weight can be transmitted through a logical network of gravitational interactions, and human laws can be transmitted through educational logical networks.

④ How to Obtain Control over Logical Fields

The logical structure exists within a logical field, and this logical field has the ability to control the logical structure. This control is transmitted in the form of data logic through a logical network, which transmits data logic. For example, the logic network of gravity transmits the force of gravity, and the logic network of government transmits legal regulations. The prerequisite for the logical structure to gain control of a logical field is to be inside this logical field. Due to the mutually shaped laws of logical fields, controlling the logical structure is expressed through data logic, which influences the activities and lifecycle of the logical structure. Once under control, the logical structure can transmit this control through an internal main line.

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**1.3.2 Logical Network**

**1.3.2.1 Logical Network**

This refers to a network that transmits interactions, not the Internet or 5G we commonly use. This type of logical network is designed to transmit data logic that carries the logic to be transmitted, including logical equation structure files, logical equation structural diagrams, logical equations, and logical equation variable values.

**1.3.2.2 Natural Networks and Social Networks in the Universe**

Numerous natural networks exist in the universe, such as the water network on Earth, the movement of winds and ocean currents, the transmission of crust dynamics, the transmission of geocentric changes to the Earth's surface, interactions and transmissions between microscopic particles, gravitational networks in macroscopic space, transmission of light and radio waves, temporal networks, and spatial networks.

Human social networks are also varied, encompassing the Internet and 5G, transportation networks such as roads, railways, waterways, and air routes, urban and rural networks, collectively referred to as hardware networks, as well as software networks, political networks, legal networks, legal networks, cultural networks, educational networks, religious networks, any many more.

In short, wherever there is a phenomenon of logical propagation, there exists a logical network.

**1.3.2.3 What is a Logical Network**

① A logical network is the attribute of a logical field, which is composed of interactions between logical structures. This gives rise to the networks formed by the phenomena of logical propagation, and such networks are referred to as logical networks.

② Logical networks propagate logic. As previously mentioned, there are many different logical networks, including propagation networks of radio waves, interactive networks of microscopic particles, the water network on Earth, the transmission network of forces within the Earth's crust, and human networks like the highway system and legal framework. In addition, the propagation of radio waves, microscopic interactions, water energy, crustal dynamics, transportation of goods on highways and legal constraints; all of these involve logic. In this sense, logical networks serve the purpose of transmitting the logic.

③ The carrier of propagating the logic is data logic, including logical equation structure file, logical equation structure diagram, logical equation and logical equation variable value, etc.; data logic is the form of transmission, it can be a cargo truck, a courthouse or even a parcel. However, it is crucial to note that the logic is the essence of propagation, affecting the logical structure that receives the transmission as well as the logical equation structure file, logical equation structure diagram, logical equation and logical equation variable value of the logical structure.

④ Logical propagation is the process of transmission modification. When a logical structure receives logical propagation, the logic influences and changes the logical structure, and the modified logical structure then emits its own data logic to the new logical structure based on its laws of life activities.

**1.3.2.4 Role of Logical Networks**

① Logical networks are crucial attributes of logical fields. The construction of logical fields necessitates the establishment of logical networks, while the quality of logical networks reflects the quality of the logical field. Logical networks are used to transmit the logic with the transmission form of data logic, including the logical equation structure file, logical equation structural diagram, logical equation and logical equation variable values.

② The development of artificial intelligence requires the research and construction of logical networks, not just the Internet and 5G. Both natural and artificial logical networks that humans face and construct are also essential for intelligent machines. For instance, intelligent machines need to contend with the gravitational networks in the universe, and social regulation for intelligent machines also requires adherence to legal networks.

**1.3.2.5 How to Construct and Use Logical Networks**

The development of both humans and artificial intelligence requires the construction and utilization of logical networks. The inherent nature of logical networks in propagating logic encompasses all aspects of human network engineering and application,s including aerospace and deep-sea engineering, legal and educational engineering, as well as market engineering for the development of artificial intelligence and legal engineering for the regulations of artificial intelligence.

**1.4 Communication of Logical Structures**

**1.4.1 Logical Structure Main Line for Internal Communication**

**1.4.1.1 Primary Structure Main Line**

In life theory, cells possess memory and communication abilities; here is a reference to the element set to store and send/receive information to a mailbox. The storage set of each element has a certain number of logical equation structural diagrams, and the element description set, attribute set and functional set also possess the various necessary structural diagrams of the logical equation. The element has the ability to solve logical equations, where the variable values needed for logical equations are input from one element's mailbox to this element's mailbox, before being transferred to the logical equation corresponding to the storage set or corresponding logical equation of the element class. The variable values generated by solving equations in this element are either used by the element itself, its other equations, or transmitted to other elements. Variable values cause changes in the logical equation and the structural diagram of logical equations, resulting in changes in logical structures. This is known as information reasoning. Variable values caused by information reasoning can control the state of the structure, while changes or continuous changes in the structure state lead to structural reasoning.

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**1.4.1.2 Intermediate Structure Main Line**

The tissues and organs of life also possess memory and communication capabilities. In simulating the theory of life, mailboxes are set up for intermediate logical structures of tissues and organs. In this way, each element has one or more of a logical equation structural diagram, tissue or organ memory , and also has one or more structural diagrams of the logical equation. The intermediate structure obeys the laws of solving equations and logic transmission of the primary structure, as well as the laws of solving equations and logic transmission of tissues or organs. That is, it acts as the post office of the external tissue or organ as it transmits information to the post office of this tissue or organ. It then transmits this information to the logical equation structure diagram in the memory from the post office; tissues and organs also have the ability to solve equations, and the variable value obtained is sent to its corresponding element or other tissue or organ post office. Other tissue or organ post offices are forwarded to their own element mailboxes, generating both information reasoning and structural reasoning.

**1.4.1.3 Advanced Structure Main Line**

In the theory of simulating life, the nervous system establishes postal pathways, referred to as nerves. Nerves are a tissue or organ controlled by subjective initiative. The subjective initiative of the primary structure follows physical laws, while the subjective initiative of the intermediate structure follows environment laws, and the subjective initiative of the advanced structure is directed by the brain. The advanced structure includes nerves, while the intermediate structure includes post offices, and the primary structure includes mailboxes.

The advanced structure features three layers of structural diagrams of the logical equation, namely the logical equation structural diagram for elements, the logical equation structural diagram for tissues or organs, and the logical equation structural diagram for the brain memory. The variable values from the internal primary or intermediate input to the brain memory are solved by the subjective initiative function located in the brain memory. The obtained value is then transmitted via nerves to the tissue or organ mailbox, which sends them on to the element mailbox, leading to information reasoning and structural reasoning. The logical equation structural diagram of the brain memory can also be transmitted to the outside through the output organs of th advanced logical structure.

**1.4.1.4 Logical Structure Main Line Used for Information Reasoning**

Abiotic reasoning uses mailbox reasoning, that is, element solving equations, where variable values sent/received by a mailbox cause logical and structural changes (i.e., changes in scientific equations). Plants engage in reasoning through the post office, that is, tissues and organ solving equations, where the tissue or organ post offices of the intermediate sends or receives variable values, after which the post offices transmit these values to the element mailboxes to generate logical changes and structural changes, (i.e., changes in the plant equation). Animals and humans engage in reasoning through brain logic and neural transmission variable values, that is, the brain tissue solving equations, where variable values are transmitted by nerves and received/sent by tissues or organ post offices. This leads to logical changes and structural changes (i.e., changes in the equation of life).

**1.4.1.5 Logical Structure Main Line Used for Information Reasoning Control Structure**

Information reasoning triggers logical changes, leading to changes in the structural diagram of the logical equation and changes in other variable values. Any changes in new variable value and other variable values may change the data of the control structure, giving rise to the formation of another control structure. For example, when a person walks and becomes anxious, they increase the variable value of step frequency, which in turn changes the logical equation structure diagram related to the human body. These changes in the logical equation structural diagram of the human body results in changes to the body structure, leading to an increased pace in the person's walking speed.

**1.4.1.6 Logical Structure Main Line Used for Structural Reasoning**

According to the theory of life, the variable values of the logical equation control the logic, while the logic itself controls the structure and generates structural reasoning. For instance, when a person is thirsty, the variable of a new demand for something to drink in the logical equation for drinking water changes, causing the variable value of the drinking action in the same equation to increase, and people then obtain a new logic for the subjective initiative of the brain that wants to drink a lot of water. This logic is transmitted layer by layer through the neural processes, through tissues or organ post offices, and through the element mailbox, before finally a set of variables commands the human body to drink water, resulting in structural reasoning. Information reasoning involves generating a goal, while structural reasoning involves generating the means and processes.

**1.4.2 Logical Networks Used for Communication between Units**

**1.4.2.1 Logical Network Communication**

The logical network is an attribute of the logical field, and this attribute arises due to extensive interactions and widespread modifications within the logical structure of the logical field.

**1.4.2.2 Logical Network Communication with Primary Structure Only**

A logical structure consisting of a primary structure only is an objective structure, devoid of life. The communication in this structure's logical network is the transmission logic of interactions and modification transmission on element mailboxes. After transmission, it is further transmitted internally. The internal transmission logic causes structural changes, followed by the external transmission of modifications. In this case, information refers to data logic, including forces, lights, languages, etc.

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**1.4.2.3 Logical Network Communication with Intermediate Structures**

Logical network communication with intermediate structures is divided into two levels. One is the logical network communication with the primary structure, as mentioned previously, while the other involves communication with tissue or organ post offices. The communication is still the data logic sent through interaction and modification transmission. After receiving the logic signal, the post office internally transfers it to the element mailboxes, similar to the internal main line mentioned earlier. Once the communication at both levels is completed, the logical structure uses the post office and mailbox to modify the transmission logic externally.

**1.4.2.4 Logical Network Communication with Advanced Structures**

Logical network communication with advanced structures is divided into three levels. This consists of two levels of communication within the intermediate structure, as well as communications composed of the brain, nerves and sense organs. As mentioned earlier, in the third level of communication, sense organs receive various forms of logic, which the brain then processes and the nerves output any modifications.

**1.5 Data Logic**

**1.5.1 Data Logic**

The theories of logical field, logical network and modification transmission are discussed above; logical fields generate interacting data logic, logic networks propagate data logic, and modification transmissions reflect the impact of data logic on logical structures. Data logic encompasses all interactions within the logical structure. Here, a unified form of data logic is the process, which includes the data logic class and other logic classes:

Data Logic Set + Attribute Operation Set + Function Operation Set (Formula 17);

The description set is the situation description of data logic, and includes data polymorphism and the logical meanings of other logic; it takes the form of the logical equation structure file, the logical equation structural diagram, the logical equation, and the variable values of the logical equation. The attribute operation set stores the logical equation structure files, logical equation structural diagrams, logical equations, and variables values of the logical equations that determine the attributes. Changes in some variables may affect attributes. The functional operation set stores logical equation structure files, logical equation structural diagrams, logical equations, and the variable values of logical equations, while changes in some variables may affect function.

**1.5.2 Data Logic Class**

The data logic class specifically refers to the data logic that expresses data, which is a class imparting logical meaning, including the description set, the attribute operation set and the functional operation set. Different from traditional raw data is the fact that its class form, various data, operations and processes of the data logic class can be tailored to be used in records of the description, attribute and functional fields. A data logic class can have a concise form, for example, containing only descriptions and omitting attributes and functions, making it similar to raw data. The data logic class represents data in the logic structure.

**1.5.3 Data Logic Class Group**

A set of related data logic classes forms a data logic class group, which can be shortened to simply 'class group'. For example, the files of each student in a class, or registration of every motor vehicle in Guangzhou. A data logic class group represents a novel type of database or data warehouse. Since both logical structure and artificial intelligence need to innovate data science, requiring a departure from traditional data science, the concept of the data logic class group is introduced here, without reference to traditional database or data stores.

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**1.5.4 Mutual Interference of Data Logic Classes**

The mutual interface of data logic classes is referred to as mutual interference.

Mutual interference research is an advanced stage of logical analysis and logical mining, requiring the application of the corresponding research methods. First, the object sets of both parties must be merged into a single set as a whole, and a suitable method found according to the laws of this set. For instance, if there are two separate datasets for COVID-19 data in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, in order to study the mutual interference of two regions' outbreaks, it is required to merge the datasets to find common attributes or changes in epidemic data. Another example is mutual interference research between datasets on pond water quality and various aquatic species. Again, these two datasets should be merged, with the elements in the merged set reflecting the impact of water quality as a constraint on each aquatic element. A wide range of sophisticated technical and mathematical tools can be applied for the study of mutual interference.

Data logic classes are also referred to as data classes.

The study on mutual interference of data classes involves merging two or more data class groups into one. At least two types of additions are presented; taking the example of research on mutual interference of COVID-19 situations in Hong Kong and Shenzhen, the similar nature of the two datasets allows for a simple merging. In the case of research on mutual interference between the pond water quality dataset and the aquatic species dataset, it involves adding the water quality dataset to each element in the aquatic species dataset. Additionally, there are other types of addition that can be explored, as well as other operations between data class groups and the significance of these operations. Mutual interference represents the advanced stage in logical analysis and logical mining, and the research process should consider the social or natural laws governing the study objects.

Research on data class connections and mutual interference of data class groups can make extensive use of various theoretical results from discrete mathematics. Research on data class connections and mutual interference of data class groups requires the application of many theories taken from group theory.

Here is an example of a social law. There are several data class groups, including the housing price data class groups, the consumer basket data class group, the employment data class group, the income data class group, the stock price data class group, and the public satisfaction data class group. Without knowing the laws of their mutual interference, a data class group is established to connect the whole set, utilize certain calculated indices of the above data class group for the collection of data classes, observe the real-time changes and mutual interference of these indices, determine the laws of mutual interference, and use these laws to design a new operation that connects the whole collected data class. This approach not only allows the development of society, the economy and politics to be monitored, but also enables the study of transformation methods for core logical measures of public satisfaction.

Another example involves natural law. A data class can be established that links the various indices affecting atmospheric temperature; then, the laws of mutual interference of these data class groups can be studied, and the operations to connect these data classes designed. A new data class can then be created, which can be used to observe the mutual interference and research methods required to modify the core logical measures of atmospheric temperature.

The research, modeling and prospects for the mutual interference of data class groups are of great significance to human beings, and various advanced mathematical tools can be introduced to create a highly intelligent production and living environment for human beings.

There are at least two scenarios for carrying out the mutual interference of data class groups. In one scenario, an operation is designed to connect various data class groups into a collection and find the relevant laws of mutual interference through dynamic changes in the data class group. In the other scenario, the laws of mutual interference must first be understood, after which the operation connections can be determined based on these laws. The various data class groups are then brought together into a collection, after which the dynamic changes of key logical data can be observed and monitored, and the relevant social and natural dynamic developments understood.

**1.5.5 Original Ecology of Distributed Data**

The fundamental guiding principle of this theory is a form of bionic logic, with the goals of simulating the logic of data science for the life activities of animals, plants and humans. In this way, a new form of data science can be established that is vital, self-contained, dependent and distributed. This data analysis then evolves into object analysis and group analysis, and the data regulation is transformed into the supervision of legal entity-affiliated data from data store supervision, moving away from the centralized and unified databases of industrial society and departing from the era of machine data. In this way, life data for the era of artificial intelligence can be created, a data science which is more suited to human nature.

**1.5.6 Object Analysis**

Object analysis is applied instead of data analysis, with the basis for analysis being that of corresponding logical equations. This includes large-scale complex analysis, such as census data analysis in the case of a population, where the data of each individual is aggregated, and centrally analyzed. New population policies are then implemented for each individual. This sequence involves objects, databases and objects, where data logic transforms databases into object groups, replacing data analysis with object analysis. Moreover, the form of the object groups can be simplified through research to become even simpler than databases, thus realizing the advantages of artificial intelligence.

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**1.5.7 Data Logic of Primary Structures**

The data logic classes of a primary structure are stored in the element storage set, forming data logic class groups and engaging in mutual interference of groups. These data logic classes are both dependent and distributed. Data logic classes are communicated through the element mailboxes, while statistical, computations, processing and editing operations of the data logic classes are carried out through self-contained attribute operation sets and functional operation sets. Data logic class groups can integrate attribute sets and function sets, creating an effect similar to replacing a database. The logical function of data logic classes changes the logical structure of elements by assigning values to variables in various logical equations.

**1.5.8 Data Logic of Intermediate Structures**

The data logic of intermediate structures is divided into two levels. One includes the data logic of the primary structures, while the other is the data logic specific to intermediate structures. Data logic classes are stored in the memory of tissues and organs. Class groups interfere with each other, exhibit dependency on tissues or organs, and are distributed in nature. The editing of data logic classes and class groups, and the mutual interference between groups can be achieved using the description sets, attribute sets, functional sets, and their respective integrations of data logic classes. The logical function of tissues and organs is to assign values to various logical equations, which influence tissues and organs by causing changes in variable values, while the memory of tissues and organs can communicate with the storage set of the elements to create distributed laws.

**1.5.9 Data Logic of Advanced Structures**

The data logic of advanced structures is divided into three levels. The first and second levels include the data logic of the primary and intermediate structures. The data logic classes specific to advanced structures are stored in brain memory, whose scale is larger than that of the memory of tissues and organs, with the scale of the memory of tissues and organs being larger than that of the storage sets of the elements. Brain memory can accommodate large-scale data logic classes and mutual interference of large-scale class groups, with the editing method involving extensive integration of description sets, attribute sets and functional sets. The logical effect on the logical structure is also to assign values to logical equations in the brain. This can occur on a large scale as thought, while brain memory can communicate with the external world through the nerves and senses, leading to learning. Brain memory can communicate with tissues, organs and element storage sets through nerves, thus creating distributed laws.

This may be able to pave the way for a new data era.

**1.6 Logical Equations**

**1.6.1 Objective Equation of Matter**

All lifeless matter has its associated matter equations, characterized by either physical or chemical equations. Various mathematical theories are utilized for these equations. Objective matter possesses a memory capacity for matter equations, constituting the storage memory of universal laws. Matter equations can realize all existence, motion and time period of objective matter.

**1.6.2 Biological Equation of Life**

Biological equations include plant equations and animal equations. Here, we discuss the biological equations of humans. The biological equations of humans is divided into three levels. The fundamental level is the biological equations of cells, including those present in cellular memory. The biological equations of cells can realize all the life activities and life cycles of cells, such as all the properties and functions of DNA can be made into biological equations. The intermediate level is the biological equation of tissues and organs, including both cell base layers, tissue and organ layers. For instance, the hunger and fullness of the stomach can be considered as two values of the same variable, which value can be determined by some biological equation or set of biological equations. The biological equations of tissues and organs include biological equations in both cell base layer and tissue or organ layer, which can realize all the life activities and life cycles of tissues or organs. Finally, the advanced biological equations of humans include biological equations in the cell base layer, tissue or organ layer, and the brain layer. The first two layers are similar to those described in earlier discussions. The biological equation at the human body involves the brain, nerves and various tissues and organs, in order to realize the activities and life cycles of the human body.

**1.6.3 Proposing the Logical Equation **

Based on matter equations and biological equations, logical equations can be proposed and categorized into three levels. Logical equations in the primary level utilize the laws of matter equations and cell equations; logical equations in the intermediate level utilize the laws of the biological equations of tissue or organs, while the advanced level logical equations utilize the laws of the brain's biological equations.

The fundamental tool for object analysis is the logical equation, including scientific equations, biological equations, and subjective equations. In other words, logical equations encompass both objective and subjective aspects. Research on bionic logic reveals that equations governing life activities are omnipresent, involving both objective and subjective equations. Based on this foundation, logical equations are also pervasive in the logical structure; all three subsets of description sets, attribute sets and functional sets for element classes have logical equations. The three levels of storage sets, memory and brain have logical equations, which are transmitted through mailboxes, post offices and nerves. Logical equations also include the clock equations, whose logical structure is composed of countless logical equations. Human activities and lifecycles are composed of logical equations, and object analysis is used to call the relevant logical equations or logical equation sets, from which the value of one part of variables can be calculated from that of the other part, while large-scale object analysis calls large-scale equation sets.

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**1.6.4 Logical Equations of Primary Structures**

The logical equations of the primary structure are established using the laws of matter equations and cell equations. In this way, the logical equations of the primary structure can describe all the activities and life cycles of the primary structures.

**1.6.5 Logical Equations of the Intermediate Structure**

The intermediate structure is the result of environmental variable logical fields filtering the primary structure to generate tissues or organs. Each tissue or organ has its own laws governed by primary logical equations. The intermediate structure then establishes intermediate logical equations based on the foundation of primary logical equations. These intermediate logical equations follow the same laws of biological equations as tissues or organs. Together with primary logical equations, they realize the activities and life cycles of the intermediate structure in the logical structure.

**1.6.6 Logical Equations of Advanced Structures**

To begin with, there are primary logical equations and intermediate logical equations in the advanced structures of logical structures. After this, advanced logical equations are constructed based on the laws of the biological equations of human bodies, so that the structure, activities and life cycles of the advanced logical structure can be described by the primary logical equations, intermediate logical equations, advanced logical equations, and various combinations thereof.

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**1.6.7 Constructing Logical Equation**

For logical equations, this construction involves three components: the equal sign, the left side of the equation, and the right side of the equation. The generation of the equal sign represents the process of constructing an equilibrium, and the interaction between the equal sign and the left and right sides is to solve variables, constituting the fundamental theory of logical equations.

**1.7 Life Activities in Logical Structures**

**1.7.1 Information Reasoning**

Information reasoning involves three levels: Primary Reasoning, Intermediate Reasoning and Advanced Reasoning:

**1.7.1.1 Primary Reasoning**

Primary reasoning involves the informational reasoning of primary structure elements; these elements include storage sets, mailboxes and their own intrinsic structures. The storage set stores the logical equation structure diagram related to the element, including matter equations and biological equations, along with relevant data. The mailbox receives permanent data logic, which includes data logic classes and other logical classes. The element's own structure, based on the data logic received, assigns values to certain variables, solves equations, and obtain solutions for certain variables. These solutions represent changes in the logical structure of the element. Transmitting the obtained variable solutions through the mailbox constitutes a form of modification transmission, while each round of modification transmission represents the primary information reasoning process.

**1.7.1.2 Intermediate Reasoning**

Intermediate reasoning includes two levels of reasoning. The first level is primary information reasoning, while the second level is intermediate information reasoning. This type of reasoning utilizes the structural diagram of the logic equation stored in the intermediate structure memory. Furthermore, the memory also contains data related to data logic classes. The post offices of the intermediate structure receive a variety of data logic, including data logical classes and other logical classes. These forms of data logic are assigned to certain variables. The intermediate structure solves equations after the assignment of certain variables according to its own structure, while the resulting variable solution represents changes in logical structure. The variable solutions, once obtained, are transmitted through the post office, constituting a modification transmission. Each transmission represents one instance of intermediate information reasoning.

The two levels of reasoning in the intermediate structure also require communication to achieve interaction.

**1.7.1.3 Advanced Reasoning**

Advanced reasoning includes not only the primary-level reasoning and intermediate-level reasoning, but also advanced-level reasoning. Advanced-level reasoning involves the structural diagrams of the logical equation in the brain memory, along with relevant data, nerves and equation solving ability of advanced logical structures, as well as sense organs. First, the sense organs receive input data logic, which is transmitted through the nerves to the brain, and the brain assigns values to variables in the memory equation. The advanced logical structure obtains the value of certain variables based on the ability of its own structure to solve the equation, resulting in a logical change in the advanced logical structure. It then outputs the logical information to the post office or mailbox in the body through nerves, or transmits it via the nerves to the relevant organ to output the logical information. This results in a modification transmission and advanced structural information reasoning. The information is then output to the internal post office or mailbox through the nerves, or is conveyed to the organs to output logical information. This process constitutes one instance of modification transmission, resulting in a episode of advanced structure information inference.

The three levels of reasoning within advanced reasoning, namely primary, intermediate, and advanced, can communicate with each other, to perform interaction.

**1.7.2 Control of Logical Structure through Information Reasoning**

Primary-level information reasoning generates logical changes in primary structure elements, i.e., changes in structural diagram of the logical equation, which represents changes in the primary structure by the primary-level information reasoning, leading to primary control.

Intermediate-level information reasoning involves both primary-level information reasoning and intermediate-level information reasoning. It generates logical changes to the tissue or organs of the intermediate structure, which also represents change in the structural diagram of the logical equation. This represents a change in intermediate-level information reasoning on the intermediate structure, resulting in intermediate control. This includes primary control, intermediate control, and combined primary and intermediate control.

Advanced-level information reasoning includes both primary-level and intermediate-level information reasoning, but also advanced-level information reasoning. Advanced-level information reasoning results in changes to the logic of advanced logical structures, which is represented by changes in the logical equation structure diagram. This represents changes in advanced-level information reasoning on advanced structures, resulting in advanced control. This form of control includes primary control, intermediate control, primary and intermediate cooperative control, advanced control, advanced and primary cooperation, advanced and intermediate cooperation and three-level control cooperation.

**1.7.3 Structural Reasoning**

Before and after information reasoning, due to logical changes in the structure, the structure transitions from one state to another, just like a person standing in one place before carrying out information reasoning, then takes a step forward after information reasoning. This is the process of structural reasoning, where information reasoning propels the body forward by one step.

Structural reasoning is of great significance to the development of intelligent machines and to the improvement of intelligent control machines.

**1.7.4 Explanations of Logical Equations**

There are no restrictions on the type of logical equations used, which a large number of mathematical equations, allowing numerous mathematical tools and theories to contribute to the study of logic structure and the development of logic engineering. This has contributed to artificial intelligence embarking on an open-ended path of development.

**1.7.5 Laws of Life Activities within Logical Structures**

Exploring the laws of life activities in logical structures requires an understanding that these laws are composed of three processes. The first process is the information reasoning process, which includes information perception and collection, such as the information obtained by the sense organs like eyes and ears; logical statistics, information processing and object analysis, commonly known as thinking, are often conducted by advanced structures, such as the brains of humans and animals, while low-level structures rely on biological and physical reactions instead of the brain. Information reasoning results in the generation of the required output information or response information. The second process involves the process of producing the required output information through movements by the brain of advanced structures, or by the reactions of the logical control structures of low-level structures. The third process is the structural reasoning process, which lies under the control of information reasoning, and finally provides the required information output.

The most crucial research objects for life activities are human beings. Using a human as an example, when that person perceives the information of being hungry, the result of the object analysis is the need to eat, which then forms the output information. This constitutes a human's instance of information reasoning, which is completed by the brain. Then, in order to obtain the output information of being full, the brain commands the body to undergo structural reasoning, including activities such as going to a restaurant and spending money on a meal. Finally, the sensation of being full is obtained as the output information, indicating that the person is now full!

Even low-level structures exhibit life activities. For example, when a hillside experiences the information of soil and rock movements, the hillside, lacking a brain but having a physical structure, undergoes object analysis based on the laws of physics and deduces the output information of the landslide. In this case, the information reasoning is controlled by physical laws, guiding the structural reasoning of the hillside and giving rise to the activity of a landslide; finally, the information output of the landslide itself is obtained.

Studying the life activities of logical structures holds great significance for the field of logic structures.

**1.8 Lifecycle of Logical Structures**

**1.8.1 Clock of Logical Structures**

Logical structures have three levels of clocks: The clock in the primary-level elements, the clock in the intermediate-level tissues or organs, and the clock in the advanced-level brains.

The clock in the element determines the lifecycle of the element. This clock is a logical equation structure diagram that generates the value of the lifecycle variable, which can also trigger information reasoning and structural reasoning.

The clock in the tissues or organs determines their lifecycle. This clock remains as a logical equation structural diagram, still generating the value of the lifecycle variable of these tissues or organs, which can also trigger information reasoning and structural reasoning.

The clock in the brain determines the lifecycle of the brain. This clock remains as a logical equation structure diagram, still generating the value of lifecycle variables of the brain, which can also trigger information reasoning and structural reasoning.

**1.8.2. Lifecycle of Subjective Initiative**

Taking humans as an example, intelligence exists as long as the brain is alive, while intelligence ceases to exist once the brain loses life. The core of the advanced structure in logical structures is the subjective initiative, which forms the brain. The brain has a clock, and the lifecycle variable of this clock is determined by a structural diagram of a logical equation. The brain's structure is responsible for solving the clock equation to obtain the lifecycle variable, while the lifecycle variable determines whether the brain can survive, and also influences whether the advanced logical structure possesses its own intelligence. The lifecycle variable of subjective initiative can perform information reasoning and structural reasoning.

**1.9 Intelligence of Logical Structures**

**1.9.1 Subjective Initiative of Logical Structures**

The subjective initiative of logical structures forms the brain's tissue or organs. The brain generates intelligence, and the fundamental goal of intelligence is to solve the logical equation variables in the logical equation structural diagram. These variable values are then used to conduct information reasoning and structural reasoning, ultimately facilitating the activities of life.

Here, we put forward a theory. There are objective logical equations in the brain's memory, including both matter equations and biological equations, while subjective logical equations also exist in the brain. These can generate subjective variable values, such as producing two subjective variable values for happiness and unhappiness. Both objective and subjective variables can undergo information reasoning and structural reasoning.

We then propose another theory: that learning is the ability to construct the structural diagram of the logical equation in the brain's memory and the capacity to solve logical equations. Since logical equations are divided into objective equations and subjective equations, learning can be categorized into objective learning and subjective learning. For example, learning to operate a lathe represents objective learning, while reading a novel is a form of subjective learning. The emergence of new logical equations results in new logical variables, creating opportunities for new information reasoning and new structural reasoning, thereby generating new life activities and new life cycles.

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**1.9.2 The Process of Intelligence**

Intelligence requires two essential processes: solving equations and communication. The detailed procedure is as follows: a person first receives the communication, using sense organs to acquire sensory data logic, which is then transmitted to the brain through nerves. Then, the brain uses the received data logic to assign values to variables in the memory. Structures are then used to solve the equations and determine the values of certain variables, which may cause logical changes in the structure. After this, new variable values are used to create information reasoning and structural information, generating activities or life cycles. Finally, the changed logical structures emit modification transmissions.

**1.9.3 Research on the Complexity of Intelligence Technology**

The more complex the intelligence is, the higher the intelligence tends to be, which further necessitates the study of complexity in intelligent technology. There may also be more than one method for developing the complexity of intelligent technology.

A student undergoing education pursues it solely for intellectual enhancement: this is a form of simple intelligence with a straightforward process. However, if the student aims for moral, intellectual, and physical development, complexity arises in the process. The reason for this is that the goal is comprehensive, while the realization process is a mix of simple processes, leading to complexity through this integrated blending.

Therefore, in order to create complexity in intelligent technology, it is necessary to train intelligent machines in methods and capabilities to achieve comprehensive goals. This involves integrating a few simple methods and process to create a blend of integrated methods and processes. The approach can also be extended to a large-scale quantity of simple methods and processes, and so forth. The invention of a theory for integrating methods and processes paves the way for achieving greater complexity in intelligent technology.

**1.9.4 A tool for the Study of Mixed Integrated Intelligence Technology - Directed Graphs in Graph Theory**

Developing complex intelligent technology requires tools, and here we propose a tool - The Directed Graph in Graph Theory. First, a logical equation structural diagram is established for the functional nodes of intelligent machines, similar to marking cities on a map and determining the starting and ending points. In cases where certain nodes are missing, they can be created based on logical structure theory. Then, the optimal path from the starting point to the ending point can be determined. Nodes or paths missing in the optimal path can be created based on logical structure theory. The optimal path then represents the logical structure of the mixed integrated method. This tool of directed graphs in graph theory can be used for both structural and information reasoning.

**2. Logic Engineering**

**2.1 Engineering of Bionic Logic**

**2.1.1 Bionic Logic**

The structure of bionic logic involves establishing a logical structure through bionics, while the engineering of bionic logic is to establish logic engineering through bionics. There are two types of bionics: one is developmental logic bionic, where the logical equation structure diagram of the primary structure or structure file is formed first. This is followed by the intermediate structure diagram or structure files, intermediate structure, advanced structure diagram or structure files, and advanced structures. For example, a metamorphic logic, such as that used for trees and most animals, where the advanced structure diagram or structure files are formed first, after which intermediate and primary structure diagrams or structure files can be developed based on the needs of the advanced structure diagram or structure files. An example of this is the metamorphosis of a frog from tadpole to adult. The bionics discussed in this theory primarily focus on growth logic.

**2.1.2 Simulating Life **

Logic engineering simulates the life of growth logic, with a focus on simulating the growth process of life and how life is simulated to grow primary and intermediate structures.

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**2.1.3 Simulating Humans**

Logic engineering simulates the advanced structure of humans, as well as the process of the formation and growth of brain tissue and nerves. The primary focus is on simulating the generation and growth of human intelligence, including the development of learning capabilities, as well as simulating the activities and lifecycle processes of brain tissue and nerves.

**2.1.4 Simulating Society**

Logic engineering simulates the process of the emergence and development of society, and establishes the development process of logical fields for logical structures. The primary focus is on researching the generation and development of logical fields for intelligent machines. This involves studying the environment of intelligent machines, specifically the emergence and development of a society where humans and intelligent machines coexist. The research also delves into the methods required for fulfilling needs and control in such a society.

**2.1.5 Simulating Human Life**

The simulation of human life establishes the engineering process for intelligent machines, where intelligent machines, like humans, are born through the marriage of parents. They learn, work, pursue further education, retire, and experience their later years, just like humans.

**2.2 Engineering Focusing on Logical Structures and Logical Mechanics**

**2.2.1 Focusing on Logical Structures**

This methodology indicates that the objects and goals of logical engineering are both logical structures, with two research paths. One is growth logic, starting with primary structures, followed by intermediate structures and advanced structures. The other is metamorphic logic, where the advanced structural diagram or structure file is formed first. After this, the intermediate and primary structural diagrams or structure files are developed based on the needs of the advanced structure.

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**2.1.2 Focusing on Logical Mechanics**

This methodology indicates that, if we judge the truth of mathematical logic and introduce 1 and 0 into the logical structure and logical engineering, drawing inspiration from safety assessment in construction, a truth value judgment is applied to the results. Logical laws that are true can be implemented, while those that are false cannot. This establishes the standard of feasibility.

**2.3 Logical Fields of Engineering**

Logical fields in logical engineering are equivalent to the environment in engineering. Feasibility, control, and demands in engineering all originate from the logical field, and are shaped by the interplay between logical structures and the logical field.

**2.4 Engineering Process**

**2.4.1 Process of Establishing the Structural Diagram of the Logical Equation**

**2.4.1.1 Growth Logic**

First, the structural diagrams of the logical equation and the clock equation are established for the primary structure, following the order of elements before integration. Then, the structural diagrams for the logical equation and clock equation are established for the intermediate structure. The filtering equation structure diagram is used to filter the primary structure and form intermediate tissues, after which the logical equation structural diagram for the intermediate structure is established. Finally, an advanced structure is created, along with the structural diagram of the logical equation and clock equation for brain tissues.

**2.4.1.2 Metamorphic Logic **

First, the structural diagrams of the logical equation and clock equation are established for the advanced structure. After this, the same diagrams for the intermediate structure are created based on the requirements of advanced structure. Finally, the structural diagrams of these logical equations are established for the primary structure.

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**2.4.2 Process for Establishing Data Structures**

**2.4.2.1 Growth Logic**

A data structure is established following the order of the primary, intermediate and advanced structures. Data is attached to the logical equations and clock equations, distributed across the corresponding variable sets, including description sets and attribute sets, as well as various levels of mailboxes, post offices, memory communications and changing data.

**2.4.2.2 Metamorphic Logic **

A data structure is established following the order of advanced structure, intermediate structure and primary structure. Data is attached to logical equations and clock equations, distributed in corresponding variable sets, including description sets and attribute sets, as well as various levels of mailboxes, post offices, memory communications and changing data.

**2.4.3 Process for Establishing Communication Structures**

**2.4.3.1 Growth Logic**

First, the primary structure is established following the order of elements before integration, along with mailboxes for each element. After this, the intermediate structure is established. The filtering equation structure diagram is used to filter the primary structure and form the intermediate tissues, after which the intermediate structure is established and a post office created for each tissue to set up communication between the intermediate structure and the primary structure. After this, the advanced structure is set up. Nerves and sense organs controlled by brain tissue are established and communication enabled between the advanced structure and the intermediate/primary structure.

**2.4.3.2 Metamorphic Logic **

First, the subjective initiative of the advanced structure is created, after which nerves and sense organs are established based on the subjective initiative of the advanced structures. Then, the tissues and their post offices are created according to subjective initiative, nerves and sense organs, after which communication is set up between the tissue and the brain. Finally, mailboxes for the primary structure and elements are created, and communication set up between elements and tissues, as well as between elements and the brain based on the needs of those tissues.

**2.4.4 Process of Life Activities**

**2.4.4.1 Process of a Life Activity**

A life activity is often controlled by the various structural diagrams of the logical equation. When certain variable data in certain logical equations changes, it can trigger changes in other variable data, leading to information reasoning. These changes in variable data can change certain logical equations, i.e., adjust the logic of the structure, resulting in information control. The logic of the structure transitioning from one state to another generates structural reasoning, which is essentially a life activity.

**2.4.4.2 Life Activity of Tissue**

The starting point for a tissue's life activity is the change in certain variable data. This change may originate from the alteration of the logical equation structure diagram of the brain tissue, i.e., thoughts. It could also arise from data updates obtained through communication. A change in variable data triggers the change of other data in related equations, leading to information reasoning, information control, and structural reasoning.

**2.4.5 Process of the Life Cycle**

The structural diagram of the clock equation controls the lifecycle of logical structures. Establishing the life cycle enables the clock equation structure diagrams to be created at various levels, and subsequently used for different elements, body tissues and brain tissue. Subsequently, changes in variable data in the structural diagram of the clock equation lead to information reasoning, information control and structural reasoning, resulting in control over the life cycle.

**2.4.6 Mathematical Form of the Process**

The representation of logical structures is a form of mathematical logic. The results of various stages of logical processes focusing on logical structures must also take the form of mathematical logic. This allows for evaluation and judgement using logical mechanics.

**2.5 Intelligence Engineering**

**2.5.1 Applying Bionic Logic to Research Intelligence Engineering**

Bionic logic theory can be applied to simulate intelligent machines as humans, establishing a logical social field for the coexistence between humans and intelligent machines, and simulating intelligent engineering as human life.

**2.5.2 Simulating the Logic Field of Society**

A social logic field for the coexistence of humans and intelligent machines can be established, where society serves as the environment for intelligent engineering. Intelligent engineering derives feasibility, control, and demands from this society, leading to mutual shaping between intelligent engineering and society.

**2.5.3 Simulating Intelligent Engineering for Human Life**

**2.5.3.1 Obtaining Parents and Family**

In the theory of simulating human life, before the birth of intelligent machines, there have to be parents and a family. The father represents the demand side, and the mother represents the supply side. Based on the control of the social logic field, parents form a family. Machine families, like humans, need to obtain a marriage certificate for supervision and monitoring purposes.

**2.5.3.2 Attaining Legal Status upon Birth**

Similarly, following the theory of simulating human life, the first stage for intelligent machines is the machine fetus, which features a primary structure, immature intermediate structures, and the potential for developing advanced structures. With their growth based on growth logic, machine fetuses need to be registered, facilitating their supervision and monitoring.

**2.5.3.3 Growth**

The growth stage of machine fetuses primarily involves enriching and perfecting their intermediate structures. Constructing the required logic equation diagrams for both primary and intermediate structures remains a form of developmental logic law.

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**2.5.3.4 Learning**

After entering the learning stage, machine fetuses enrich and perfect advanced structures, becoming machine students. They exercise an ability for metamorphic logic, developing logic equation diagrams for life activities, and enriching the variable dataset of their logic equation diagrams.

**2.5.3.5 Working**

Upon completing the learning process, intelligent machines possess perfected primary, intermediate, and advanced structures. Concluding the primary growth logic, they then begin applying metamorphic logic in their work, thus transitioning into machine workers.

**2.5.3.6 Enhancement**

Machine workers have not completely departed from the growth logic; like humans, they require ongoing education to enhance logic equation diagrams for various levels of structures and equip themselves with updated variable data for their equations.

**2.5.3.7 Retirement**

Machine workers, like humans, also go through a period of retirement, and can lead a retired life that is similar to that of humans. They can also retain the option of reusing traditional engineering.

**2.5.3.8 Old Age**

Intelligent machines, like humans, have a concluding stage of old age. The social logic field can manage elderly machines in a manner similar to that of managing elderly human individuals.

**3. Significance of this Theory to Artificial Intelligence and Human Methodology**

**3.1 Significance of this Theory to Artificial Intelligence**

**3.1.1. Putting forth a foundational theory of artificial intelligence for the first time; **

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**3.1.2. Paving a new path for the development of artificial intelligence using bionic logic theory, and addressing various issues arising from the use of old methods from industrial societies;**

**3.1.3. Developing the technological structure of artificial intelligence and engineering processes using the important tool of logic equation diagrams;**

**3.1.4. Utilizing logic structures to research and develop artificial intelligence technology, employing logical mechanics to assess the truth, validity, and feasibility of artificial intelligence technology processes, and introducing logical mechanics to create software mechanics, with a logic structure as the research object and logic mechanics as the research laws; **

**3.1.5. Applying the theory of the logic field to study the environment of artificial intelligence technology and the theory of logic networks to research the novel networks required by artificial intelligence technology;**

**3.1.6. Constructing communication for artificial intelligence technology using the communication theory of logical structures;**

**3.1.7. Replacing the data science of industrial societies with data logic, and fostering the development of new data science required for artificial intelligence;**

**3.1.8. Utilizing the logic structure theory of life activities to study the work of artificial intelligence machines. This work starts from the structural diagram of the logical equation and ends by concluding it. The detailed process is described using multiple logic equation diagrams, and is studied using three theories: information reasoning, information reasoning control structure, and structural reasoning. The machine's lifecycle is studied using the life cycle theory, while the period is researched using clock equation diagrams;**

**3.1.9. Developing the intelligence theory based on logic structuralism, applying the theory to artificial intelligence technology, and generating the foundational theory for researching into artificial intelligence machines;**

**3.1.10. Developing the software engineering required for artificial intelligence technology based on logic engineering, and generating a fundamental theory for the development of artificial intelligence engineering.**

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**3.2 Significance of this Theory to Human Methodology**

**3.2.1. Creating a new world view. The universe is neither subjective nor objective, but it is logical. The uniqueness of truth in logical laws determines that logical laws can also generate truths, resolving the confusion regarding the subjectivity and objectivity of the universe faced by many scientists;**

**3.2.2. Establishing a new view of life. Human life follows the logical laws that encompass both materialism and idealism. Human life is the logical law that combines objective with subjective laws;**

**3.2.3. Considering issues using bionic logic. Impart life to issues, and considering cell issues, human issues, issues simulating society, and issues simulating human life;**

**3.2.4. Utilizing the important tool of structural diagrams of the logical equation to study the structure of various human issues, investigate solutions, and serve as a descriptive tool for the problem-solving process;**

**3.2.5. Considering issues using a logic-oriented structure. Viewing everything as logical structures, using logical laws to satisfy one's needs, employing logical processes in behavioral processes, and applying logical mechanics to consider truthfulness and feasibility;**

**3.2.6. Qualifying research objects as logical objects and logical structures, with the research perspective focused on discovering logical laws. Logical laws encompass various professional and interdisciplinary perspectives. The truth values of logical laws empower them to pursue truths. Research methods involve understanding logical structures, discovering logical laws, and developing logic engineering. This must fully meet the needs of interdisciplinary research, innovate interdisciplinary research, ensure the truth of logical laws satisfy the uniqueness of truth, redefine the fields and classifications of modern academia, introduce innovative research methods and provide new perspectives for academic research;**

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**3.2.7. Viewing the environment of all issues as logical fields and logical networks, and studying the mutual shaping of issues and logical fields;**

**3.2.8. Utilizing the communication theory of logical structure to study communication within various practical problems;**

**3.2.9. Utilizing data logic to innovate human perspectives on data processing, and replace data analysis and formula analysis with object analysis and logic equation diagram analysis;**

**3.2.10. Utilizing the theory of life activities to study the generation, development, consequences and solutions of issues, and applying the lifecycle theory to study the processes of various work processes;**

**3.2.11. Utilizing the intelligence theory of logical structuralism to grow and develop human wisdom;**

**3.2.12. Utilizing the theory of logic engineering to study all process-related issues and engineering issues;**

**3.2.13. System structures are designed based on the machine-oriented thinking of the industrial age and cannot meet the requirements of subjective initiative or intelligence. System laws are not unique and cannot encompass the truth of both subjective and objective laws. Logical laws have unique truth values and can encompass the truth of both subjective and objective aspects, making them suitable for pursuing truths. System engineering needs to match the professional laws of engineering but lacks proper effectiveness. Logic engineering, tailored for logical structures, offers a complete set of independent processes and good effectiveness. System Structure and System Engineering is a theory of the traditional industrial age and does not meet the requirements of the artificial intelligence age. Logic Structure and Logic Engineering replaces System Structure and System Engineering and is aligned with the requirements of the artificial intelligence age. It is the most effective method in the artificial intelligence age for pursuing truths.**

References

[1] Dong H. Liu: *Logical Field Software Engineering*, Guangzhou: Jinan University Press Edition 2015.

[2] Dong H. Liu: *Logic Structure and Logic Engineering*, Guangzhou: Sun Yat-sen University Press Edition 2015.

[3] Dong H. Liu: *Logical Field Economics, *Guangzhou: Jinan University Press Edition 2014.

[4] Dong H. Liu: *Soft Structure of Social Science*, Guangzhou: Jinan University Press Edition 2013.

[5] Dong H. Liu: *3D Social Engineering*, Guangzhou: Jinan University Press Edition 2012.

This paper is my original and first-of-its-kind research by Liu Haidong.

Dong H. Liu

Guangzhou, Saturday January 6, 2024

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