蒋高明的博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/蒋高明 中国科学院植物研究所研究员,从事植物生态学研究

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用有机肥代替化肥可缓解暖温带农田温室气体排放

已有 525 次阅读 2019-11-6 08:34 |个人分类:环保呐喊|系统分类:科研笔记| 温室气体, 暖温度农田, 秸秆利用, 牛粪, 减排

用有机肥代替化肥可缓解暖温带农田温室气体排放

刘海涛、李静、李霄、郑延海、冯素飞、蒋高明* (*通讯作者)


中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室;中国科学院大学;山东农业大学作物生物学国家重点实验室

科学通报 (英文版),2015, 60(6): 598-606(影响因子:6.055)


焚烧作物秸秆和过度使用化肥,造成生物资源极大浪费,进一步削弱了农业生态系统作为碳汇的潜在能力。为探索农田作为碳库而不造成产量损失的潜力,我们在中国东部一个温带生态农场开展了本试验。将作物秸秆用于牛饲料,将堆肥后的牛粪返回农田,进行冬小麦和玉米轮作。设计了4种不同比例的肥料:100%牛粪、100%化肥、75%牛粪加25%化肥、50%牛粪加50%化肥。根据政府间气候变化专门委员会(IPCC)2006年国家温室气体清单指南,仔细核算了作物产量和温室气体排放量。结果表明,有机肥替代化肥可显著降低温室气体排放;施用牛粪提高土壤肥力,小麦、玉米产量也随之提高;有机肥完全取代化肥减少了温室气体排放,使农业生态系统从碳源(2.7吨二氧化碳当量/公顷/年)转变为碳库(8.8吨二氧化碳当量/公顷/年)。本发现为改善全球变化情景下的农业生态系统碳汇潜力,提供了有力的证据。

关键词:农作物秸秆、化肥、牛粪、农作物产量、温室气体排放、气候变化

 

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through replacement of chemical fertilizer with organic manure in a temperate farmland 

Haitao Liu; Jing Li;Xiao Li; Yanhai Zheng; Sufei Feng; Gaoming Jiang*

State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change,Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences;

University of Chinese Academy of Sciences;

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University

Science Bulletin, 2015, 60(6): 598-606. (IF=6.055)


Burning crop residues and excessive use of chemical fertilizers results in an enormouswaste of biological resources, which further weakens the potential capacity of the agro-ecosystem as a carbon sink. To explore the potential of farmlands acting as a carbon sink without yield losses, we conducted an experiment on a temperate eco-farm in eastern rural China. Crop residues were applied to cattle feed, and the composted cattle manure was returned to cropland with a winter wheat and maize rotation. Four different proportions of fertilizers were designed: 100 % cattle manure, 100 % mineral nitrogen, 75 % cattle manure plus 25 % mineral nitrogen,and 50 % cattle manure plus 50 % mineral nitrogen. Crop yield and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were carefully calculated according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories 2006. Our results showed that replacing chemical fertilizer with organic manure significantly decreased the emission of GHGs. Yields of wheat and corn also increased as the soil fertility was improved by the application of cattle manure. Totally replacing chemical fertilizer with organic manure decreased GHG emissions, which reversed the agriculture ecosystem from a carbon source(+2.7 t CO2-eq. hm-2year-1) to a carbon sink(-8.8 t CO2-eq. hm-2year-1). Our findings provide useful insights for improving agricultural ecosystems under global change scenarios.

Keywords: Crop residue, Chemical fertilizer, Cattle manure, Crop yield, Greenhouse gas emissions, Climate change

Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions through replac.png




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