蒋高明的博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/蒋高明 中国科学院植物研究所研究员,从事植物生态学研究

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《中国生态文明建设》(中英对照)连载之二十三:生活空间适宜

已有 457 次阅读 2018-4-15 07:49 |个人分类:生态科普|系统分类:科普集锦| 生态文明建设, 生态宜居, 连载, 乡村

中国生态文明建设连载之二十三 生活空间宜居 本文载《中生态文明建设》(中英对照) 北京语言大学出版社 2014 作者 蒋高明 3.1.3生活空间适宜 3.1.3 Habitable living space 2013年5月,我应海南省澄迈县领导邀请,实地考察了该县生态环境和生态农业产业,以及当地古村落等。那里的百岁老人吸引了我。在老城镇罗驿村,我看到这样一个“准百岁老人”,他已经99岁了,还骑自行车下地干活,自己到镇上买菜做饭。老人记忆力很好,身子骨依然硬朗,中央电视台对他进行过报道。在与老人的交谈中,我明显感觉到老人的生活中充满了幸福和希望。 In May 2013, invited by the leaders of Chengmai County of Hainan province, I carried out an investigation of the ecological environment and ecological agriculture, as well as of the situation of local ancient villages, etc. The presence of centenarians among villagers drew my attention. In the village of Luoyi, I saw an old man who was getting on 100 years old. He was already 99, but was still able to do such things as riding a bike to work, buying food from the town and cooking himself. He had a good memory and a tough body, and was once featured by CCTV. In conversation with him, I felt that the old man’s life was full of hope and happiness. 为什么当今城市里的年轻人都缺乏的幸福和希望,会在农村的老人心中存在呢? Why do happiness and hope so lacking in today’s urban young people still enchant this rural old man’s heart? 我发现,澄迈县具有独一无二的热带生态资源。生态自然,环境优美,当地有名的“三老”——百岁老人、千年老房、万年生态,让我切身感受到,真的是这样健康优美的生活空间,才是最适合人类居住的,才造就了这样健康的百岁老人。在这里生活的人,真的很幸福! I found out that Chengmai County had the unique tropical ecological resource, retaining the ecosystem’s natural state and beautiful scenery. The famous “three old”—old people aged over 100, old house with a history of one thousand years, old ecosystem exising for 10 thousand years—gave me a strong feeling that a healthful and beautiful living space was most suitable for human beings, and that’s why the old man could live healthily to the age of 100. The people who lived there were really happy. “安得广厦千万间,大庇天下寒士俱欢颜。”唐代诗人杜甫的呐喊,让我们深刻感受到当时社会的苦难。但是仅仅是高楼大厦,能够带给人幸福吗?答案是否定的。今天的人们也向往舒适的生活环境,政府也致力于提高人民群众的居住水平,创造美好的居住家园。但是,中国城市建设最火的几十年,都是围绕着房地产建设展开的。高楼多了,人们的房子宽敞了,但生态环境被破坏了。在过度集中的大城市中,即使有了豪华宽敞的房子,但开窗就是雾霾,出门就是污染,连市场里买回来的粮食蔬菜也是有损健康的。这样的城市,不是真正宜人的生活空间。 Du Fu, the Chinese poet in the Tang dynasty, wrote: “Where can I get thousands of houses to shelter the world’s poor people and make them happy?” I was deeply touched by the hardships of the society at that time. But can buildings alone bring people happiness? The answer is no. People today are also looking forward to a comfortable living environment, and the government has strived to improve people’s living condition and create comfortable homes for them. The decades-long period of brisk city construction in China centers only on real estate construction. More tall buildings have stood up, and people’s houses have become much larger than before; but the ecological environment has been destroyed. In big thickly-populated cities, even living in a large house, people still have to breathe polluted air when they open their windows. Pollution is everywhere once we go out, and even the food and vegetables bought from the market are polluted and bad for our health. A city like that cannot offer a real pleasant living space. 宜居城市是后工业化时代的产物,是指具有良好的居住和空间环境、人文社会环境、生态与自然环境和清洁高效的生产环境的居住地。1996年,联合国第二次人居大会提出,城市应当是适宜人类居住的。此概念一经提出,就在国际社会形成了广泛共识,成为21世纪新的城市观。2005年,国务院批复的《北京城市总体规划》中,也写上了“宜居城市”的理想。 A habitable city is a product of the post-industrial era, referring to a habitat that provides good living space, a social and humanistic condition, an ecological and natural environment, and a clean and effective production environment. In 1996, it was proposed in the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, Habitat II, that cities should be suitable for human habitation, and after the proposal was put forward the concept was universally acknowledged, becoming a new city concept for the 21st century. In 2005, the Beijing City Master Plan, approved by the State Council, also included the concept “habitable city”. 中国城市竞争力研究会,连续多年发布中国十大宜居城市排行榜。进入排行榜的城市和他们的排名,虽然每年都有所变动,但总体格局没有大的变化。经常被评为“全国十佳宜居城市”的城市是:威海、珠海、金华、惠州、台中、信阳、南宁、衢州、曲靖、香港。作为国际大都市的北京并没有入选。北京目前面临的垃圾围城、雾霾、城市热岛等问题,都对北京未来的发展提出了挑战,给北京的城市规划者提出了新的课题。今后,宜居会变成城市核心竞争力的关键参数。 The Chinese Institute of City Competitiveness has released the list of top 10 livable cities in China for many years running. The rankings change every year, but only a little. The cities that can be often seen on the list are Weihai, Zhuhai, Jinhua, Huizhou, Taizhong, Xinyang, Nanning, Quzhou, Qujing, and Hong Kong. Beijing, as an international city, is not on the list. The problems Beijing faces are trash, haze, urban heat island, and so on, challenging its future development and posing a new conundrum to city planners. In the future, whether or not it is livable will become a key consideration of a city’s core competitiveness. 说到宜居,就不能不提到乡村。著名的广西巴马、海南澄迈等长寿县,都是乡村,那里的百岁老人都是地地道道的农民。他们的长寿并不是靠先进的医疗和奢华的生活,相反,是乡村美丽的生态空间,和谐的人际关系,人们乐观的性格和低微的物质需求。中国政府今后要考虑建设美丽乡村,改善乡村的硬件条件,充分发挥农村的宜居与养老功能。这可以成为城市化建设的重要补充。 When it comes to the habitability, one cannot get around the countryside. The famous towns of longevity like Bama in Guangxi and Chengmai in Hainan are all located in the countryside. The people aged over 100 are thorough-going farmers. They live long not because of advanced medical treatment and a luxurious life but due to the beautiful ecological space in the countryside, harmonious interpersonal relationships, optimistic character and scanty material needs. The Chinese government may consider the construction of beautiful villages, improve the hardware, bring the villages’ habitable function into full play and maximize its role as a place to nurse the aged. This is an important supplement for urbanization.

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