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关于安全学科的公理,原来海因里希是这样说的

已有 2858 次阅读 2016-2-13 23:59 |个人分类:1|系统分类:观点评述|关键词:安全学科的公理| 安全学科的公理

关于安全学科的公理,原来海因里希是这样说的(见下面)。 

这些公理,也就是不用证明就是正确的定理,在今天虽然不一定完全正确,但是其所涉及的方面应该大体是这些。

这些公理,仔细分析、整合,应该和这里描述的大同小异,读者可以试一试(见《这五条作为安全科学的基本规律应该可以》)。

AXIOMS OF INDUSTRIAL SAFETY

1 The occurrence of an injury invariably results from a completed sequence of factors---the last one of these being the accident itself. The accident in turn is invariably caused or permitted directly by the unsafe act of person and/or a mechanical or physical hazard.

2 The unsafe acts of persons are responsible for a majority of accidents.

3 The person who suffers a disabling injury caused by an unsafe act, in the average case has had over 300 narrow escapes from serious injury as a result of committing the very same unsafe act. Likewise, persons exposed to mechanical hazards hundreds of times beforethey suffer injury.

4 The severity of an injury is largely fortuitous---the occurrence of the accident that results in injury is largely preventable.

5 The four basic motives or reasons for the occurrence of unsafe acts provide a guide to the selection of appropriate corrective measures.

6 Four basic methods are available for preventing accidents---engineering revision, persuasion and appeal,personnel adjustment, and discip1ine.

7 Methods of most value in accident prevention are analogous with the methods required for the control of the quality, cost, and quantity of production.

8 Management has the best opportunity and ability to initiate the work of prevention; therefore it should assume the responsibility.

9 The supervisor or foreman is the keyman in industrial accident prevention. His application of the art of supervision to the control of worker performance is the factor of greatest influence in success.It can be expressed and taught asa simple four-step formu1a.

10 The humanitarian incentive for preventing accidental injury is supplemented by two powerful economic factors: (1) the safe establishment is efficient productively and the unsafe establishment is in efficient; (2) the direct employer cost of industria1 injuries for compensation claims and for medical treatment is but one-fifth of the tota1 costwhich the employer must pay.

Ref.: Industrial Accident Prevention,1980, p21





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