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(196)intervention for advanced language

已有 357 次阅读 2019-4-19 22:15 |系统分类:科研笔记

Language Disorders:from Infancy through Adolescence:

Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing, and Communicating

Rhea Paul, PhD, CCC-SLPProfessor, Yale Child Study Center

New Haven, Connecticut

Courtenay F. Norbury, PhD

Senior Research Fellow Department of Psychology Royal Holloway University of London London,England

pages 632-640

had students first free-associate to a topic,listening words or drawing a picture,next,the students generated a list of key words about the topic that describe its interesting, unexpected aspects.these key words were then built into simple sentences,the sentences were sequenced to reflect the structure of the topic(temporal,causal,and so on).the simple sentences were then elaborated with missing details,adverbs,and modifier phrases.they were finally combined into complex sentences.this process can be carried out on paper or using a word processor with a separate printout for each step in the process.again,once students have been guided through these steps several times,they are encouraged to guide themselves and to use similar strategies in independent writing activities.

basic steps in beginning the process of composition

step 1:write a short,simple sentence that states one idea

step 2:write three sentences about the sentence in step 1,be sure they relate to the meaning of the entire sentence,not just one part of it.each of these will be the topic sentence for a new paragraph

step 3:write four or five sentences about each of the three topic sentences in step 2

step 4:make the sentences in step 3 as detailed as possible,try to say a lot about each idea, instead of talking about a lot of different ideas.

step 5:strat a new paragraph with each topic sentence in step 2.follow each of these topic sentences with the detail sentences you wrote in step 3 and 4.make sure that each of the sentences in each paragraph relates to the topic sentence

step 6:make sure each sentence in the composition is related to the sentence that comes before it,be sure each paragraph is clearly related to the paragraph that comes before it

using text structures for planning writing

a series of steps for teaching students to recognize each of the expository macrostructures and provided detailed lesson plans for accomplishing each of these steps:

1.define a label the structure

2.have students examine model paragraphs,using verbal and visual organizers to find the cirtical attributes of each

3.write a group paragraph modeling the original paragraph using a visual organizer

4.have students compose paragraphs individually,using the visual organizer

5.look for the pattern in paragraphs from students' text

the best way to improve student writing is to get students to write!

startegies for composition

using "prompt cards" to aid students in turning ideas into sentences

introductory phrases

this paper explains...

we will discuss why...

the cuase of...

explanatory phrases

the reasons for ...

for this reason...

as a result of...

in order to...

concluding phrases

to sum up the reasons for...

in conclusion,the explanation for ____ is ...

as we have seen,the cause of ____ can be considered...

encouraging word processing

removing handwriting as an obstacle to composition can improve students' writing.

internet resources allow students to produce materials that combine text,graphics,video,and  audio information.

using assistive computer technology with students with disabilities

strategies for editing and revising

revising differs from editing in that its aim is to improve the overall quality of the composition rather than just correct mistakes

effective strategies for improving editing of written products for students with LLD

COPS

C-have i capitalized the first word in sentences and all the proper nouns

O-have i made any errors in overall appearance such as margins,messiness,or spacing errors?

P-have i used end punctuation,commas,and semicolons correctly?

S-are the words spelled right;can i sound them out,or should i use a dictionary?

inSPECT FOR WORD PROCESSING 

In your document

Start the spell checker

Pick the correct alternative

Eliminate unrecognizable words

Correct additional errors


self- and peer prompts for revising compositions of students with LLD  at the advanced language stage

self-prompts

read your composition

find the sentence that gives the main idea,is it clear?

add two sentences to make it clearer or stronger.

SCAN each sentence:

does it make sense?

is it connected to the rest of the composition?

can you add more?

note errors

make necessary changes on your computer or on your paper with a read marker

reread the composition,make any final changes

recopy or print out revised version

FREE PROMPTS

(two peers provide suggestions to each other on how to revise their respective writings)

listen as your partner reads the piece out loud and read along

tell what your partner's paper is about and what you liked best

reread your partner's paper and make notes:

is everything clear?

can any details be added?

discuss your suggestions with your partner

revise your own paper

exchange papers and check for errors

capitalization

punctuation

spelling


self- and peer assessment

guidelines for peer comments on expository writing(p.634)

guideline:when you work with a partner to revise your writing,ask yourself,did i:

praise specific aspects of the writing?

ask questions that guide thinking?

make comments that link to text?

offer to think together about how to improve the essay


persuasive text

giving students not just a goal for a persuasive text,but an elaborated set of goals-such as stating a viewpoint on the question,stating reasons for the view,elaborating the reasons, stating the alternative view,giving reasons for an alternative,and giving rebuttals-resulted in significant improvements in the persuasive writing of secondary students with LLD.

visual organizer for persuasive essay(p.635)


the metas

self-regulation

students continually need to evaluate their own performance in order to decide when to invoke the strategies they have.

executive function in adolescence predicts academic success better than IQ,so it's clearly an important skill to cultivate.

self-regulated comprehension

did i get it?what did the instruction tell me to do?

can i follow the direction?do i have everything i need?

do i need to ask(student)to repeat the instruction?part of it?

do i need to ask what a word means?

do i need to check that i got it right?shall i repeat what i heard and ask if it's correct?

it is important to note that comprehension monitoring of written material can only take place in the context of understanding most of the material in the text.


self-regulated writing

self-monitoring checklist for student writing(p.636)

i found a quiet place to work

i read or listened to the teacher's direction carefully

i thought about who would read my paper

i thought about what i know about the subject

i thought about what i wanted my paper to accomplish

i used brainstorming to plan my paper before i wrote

i organized my ideas before i wrote

i got all the information i needed before i wrote

i thought about the reader as i wrote

i thought about what i wanted to accomplish as i wrote

i continued to think and plan as i wrote

i revised the first draft of my paper

i checked to be sure a reader could understand what i meant

i checked to make sure i had accomplished my goals

i checked my paper for spelling,capitalization,and punctuation errors

i reread my paper before turning it in 

i ask other students or my parents to read the paper to see what they thought

i rewarded myself when i finished.


checklist for self-regulation in writing a persuasive essay(p.637)

plan

did i complete a think sheet>

did i talk it over with my teacher and other students?

do i have my think sheet with me?

did i put my name,date,and title of the essay on my paper?

organize

have i chosen an organizational structure for my paper?

did i use a graphic organizer to lay out my ideas?

write

did i follow my plan?

did i include all the ideas in my graphic organizer?

does the first paragraph state my opinion and give supporting ideas?

do my middle paragraphs elaborate my main idea?

do my last paragraph give a summary and reasons for my conclusion?

edit

have i checked for spelling mistakes?

have i checked for grammar mistakes?

have i checked for punctuation mistakes?

have i checked for capitalization mistakes?

have i ask a teacher or peer to check over the paper with me?

have i made all the correction?

revise

have i read my paper aloud and conferenced with my partner?

have i found ways to make my paper clearer and more mature?


extended practice with feedback from adults and peers

use of interactive questions

breaking tasks down into component parts

using prompts and cues that are gradually faded


contexts of intervention in the advanced language stage

agents of intervention

peer tutoring in secondary settings resulted in improved academic performance of students with mild disabilities and could be classified as practice with a strong evidence base.

service delivery models

individualized and responsive,using ongoing,dynamic assessment and constantly modifying the program to meet the student in his or her current zone of proximal development

systematic:that is ,organized and sequenced into small segments to control for task difficulty,providing instruction that includes explanation,modeling,and guided practice that is scaffolded by questions,explanations,and conversations

intensive,engaging for extended periods of time(more than would be spent in a typical classroom) on guided,interactive activities that are goal-directed and provide opportunities to achieve mastery and generalization,achieved through collaboration with special and general education teachers

the clinical model

the language-based course for credit

consultation and collaboration

the difficulties of providing consultation and collaboration at the secondary level,these include the fact that teachers are very independent in their development of course material and that they deal with so many students,spending very little time in one-to-one interaction with each,furthermore,no one teacher has primary responsibility for any students

consultation

as part of our consultation with classroom teachers,we can suggest the following procedures:

mnemonic strategy instruction:we can encourage teachers to present strategies such as keyword and POSSE,or offer to present them in collaborative teaching sessions

visual and graphic organizers:sharing some of the graphic organizers we use with our student with their classroom teachers can encourage them to use these supports,which are valuable to general as well as special education students

guide notes:we can work with teachers to provide prepared handouts that guide a student through a lecture or discussion with visual cues and spaces for the student to write key facts and concepts.teachers may choose to provide these to all students,or only to those with IEPs

class-wide peer tutoring:as we discussed before,this practice helps students take responsibility for their own learning and benefits even top students as well as those with special needs

linking current knowledge to new information:using techniques we've discussed,such as creating anticipatory sets and activating background knowledge,facilitates the ability of all students to assimilate new information

reciprocal teaching:providing students with problems,procedures,and material,having them brainstorm ways to use what they have been given to solve the problem after modeling and support from the teacher helps students master concepts through their own thinking and experimenting.

to modify the presentation of material and to make some accommodation for the student in the classroom.

sample teacher "tip sheet" for classroom questions(p.641)

asking questions:expecting answers

teachers ask questions that they expect students to be able to answer,questioning students helps the learning process,a teacher's response to students' answers can foster this learning process and also protect the student's self-esteem.

here are a few basic but powerful behavior:

provide wait time:pausing to allow a student more time to answer instead of moving on to the next student when you don't get a response

dignify response:give credit for the correct aspects of an incorrect resoponse

restating the question:asking the question a second time

rephrasing the questions:using different words that might increase the probability of a correct response

providing guidance:giving enough hints and clues so that the student will eventually determine the correct answer

these actions may seem insignificant,but they send a powerful message of acceptance to students,students who feel accepted become active learners

modifying presentation of information

sample questions 

knowledge(remembers and repeats information presented,answers simple questions)

comprehension(demonstrates understanding by paraphrasing or restating information in own words)

application(uses in information,rules,methods,or priciples learned in new but similar situations

analysis(identifies components,gives explanations,identifies problems)

synthesis(abstracts from previously learned material to generate solutions to new but related problems)

evaluation(compares alternatives,states and justifies opinions,provides evidence for responses)

some guidelines for modifying the teacher's presentation of information for the benefit of the student with LLD,first,ask teachers to use a slow rate of presentation.besides just talking more slowl,teachers can be encouraged to insert short(1s)pauses within long or complex sentences to give students to give students additional processing time.a second suggestion is to ask teachers to provide redundancy,teachers can paraphrase difficult material so that students hear it several different ways,they also can summarize the main points of the material at the end of the presentation.even verbatim repetition,with modification of the stress and intonation pattern for emphasis,can be can effective rhetorical technique and provides helpful redundancy.visual and graphic organizers are also very helpful ways of supporting the learning of students with LLD,and we can remind teachers that they will probably be helpful to many students in the class.to have teachers provide contextual cues,include stating the topic to be discussed;using visual aids such as slides,overheads,and charts to reinforce the verbal presentation;putting an outling of the presentation on an overhead or handout;and asking directed questions to focus students' attention on critical points in the presentation and aid in recall,another suggestion is to relate new information to something the students already know.choosing examples from areas in which students have experience or interest,such as sport,also aids recall.

talk slowly

pause within long sentences

repeat important information

provide visual cues

relate new information to something students already know

asking teachers to write all their instructions on the board as they say them 

read written instruction given on tests and homework assignment aloud,again providing an alternate modality for students who may have trouble processing information from print material,asking teachers to pause briefly after they ask a question can give the student with LLD additional time to retrieve an answer

advising teachers to present learning experiences in additon to listening,such as debates or other participatory activities

asking teachers to provide greater guidance and support to students with LLD by provide breaking assignments down into parts,and giving more opportunities for practice

suggesting teachers take the time to explain to students with LLD privately where they have made errors and how they can correct them

helping teachers use anticipatory sets to marshal and evaluate their students' background knowledge on curricular topic,if background knowledge gaps are identified,the SLP can help the student find ways to catch up

encouraging teachers to use peer-assisted activities sucn as cooperative learning groups, peer learning buddies and class-wide peer tutoring to provide students with LLD opportunities to practice social skills being developed in the communication classroom setting

ask teachers to offer choices to students with LLD about how they complete assignment, the topics they write on,etc.choices help the student feel more involved













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