蒋高明的博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/蒋高明 中国科学院植物研究所研究员,从事植物生态学研究

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不同耕作与施肥方式对有机玉米田杂草群落和作物产量的影响

已有 803 次阅读 2019-11-17 10:55 |个人分类:建言新农村|系统分类:科研笔记| 杂草, 生物多样性, 有机农田, 小麦, 玉米

不同耕作与施肥方式对有机玉米田杂草群落和作物产量的影响

博文静, 郭立月, 李静, 韦继光, 李彩虹, 李勇, 蒋高明* (*通讯作者)

中国科学院植物植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室

山东农业大学农学院

植物学报, 2012, 47(6): 637-644.


【摘要】 农田杂草是农业生态系统的重要组成部分。有机农田杂草控制是农业生产的一大难题,通过施肥方式改变杂草的竞争格局有望成为杂草控制的新途径。以暖温带有机玉米田为研究对象,设置了5种不同处理,即不施肥对照处理(CK)、施用牛粪处理(CM)、施用蚯蚓处理过的牛粪处理(EM)、免耕秸秆不覆盖处理(NT)和免耕秸秆覆盖处理(NS),研究不同耕作和施肥方式对田间杂草密度、生物量、生物多样性及作物产量的影响。结果表明,在有机玉米农田内共发现杂草17种,CK杂草总密度最高,但杂草总生物量和生物多样性指数较低。EM杂草总生物量和牛筋草(Eleusine indica)生物量最高,分别比CK增加了192.6%和224.8%(P<0.01),物种丰富度和生物多样性指数较低,优势集中度指数较高。NS杂草总密度、总生物量和生物多样性与NT相比显著降低。此外,EM玉米(Zea mays)产量比CK高40.2%(P<0.01),比CM高19.6%(P<0.01)。施用蚯蚓处理过的牛粪不仅提高了玉米产量,而且可以促进优势种杂草的生长,提高杂草群落的优势集中度。

关键词生物多样性;生物量;优势种;施肥;杂草


Effects of different tillage and fertilization methods on weed community and crop yield in an organic corn field

Bo Wenjing, Guo Liyue, Li Xiao, Wei Jiguang, Li Caihong, Li Yong, Jiang Gaoming* (*Correspondence author)

State Key Laboratory of vegetation and environmental change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 20, Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093

Agricultural College of Shandong Agricultural University

 

Chinese Bulletin of Botany, 2012, 47(6): 637-644

 

[Abstract] Weeds are an important part of agricultural ecosystem. Weed control in organic farmland is a big problem in agricultural production. It is expected to be a new way to change the competition pattern of weeds by applying fertilizer. Five different treatments, CK, cm, EM, NT and NS, were used to study the effects of different tillage and fertilization methods on weed density, biomass, biodiversity and crop yield. The results showed that 17 kinds of weeds were found in organic corn field, and CK had the highest weed density, but the total weed biomass and biodiversity index were low. The total biomass of EM weeds and the biomass of Eleusine indica were the highest, increased by 192.6% and 224.8% respectively compared with CK (P < 0.01), the species richness and biodiversity index were lower, and the dominant concentration index was higher. The total density, biomass and biodiversity of NS weeds were significantly lower than NT. In addition, the yield of EM maize (Zea mays) was 40.2% higher than CK (P < 0.01), 19.6% higher than CM (P < 0.01). The application of cow manure treated by earthworm not only increased the yield of corn, but also promoted the growth of dominant species of weeds and the dominant concentration of weed community.

Key words: biodiversity; biomass; dominant species; fertilization; weeds



 




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