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[图片,搜集,小资料] 人类进化和古人类

已有 1423 次阅读 2022-11-30 17:09 |个人分类:医学 健康 生物|系统分类:科研笔记

[图片,搜集,小资料] 人类进化和古人类

                       

   新华社 2021-02-17 在《到底有多少种早期人类?美媒:至少21种》里说:

   美国史密森学会自然历史国家博物馆列出了至少21种被大多数科学家认可的人类物种。当然,这并不是一份完整的清单;比如,丹尼索瓦人就没有包含在内。

   清单中包括智人 Homo sapiens、尼安德特人 Neanderthals、印尼“霍比特人”the Indonesian hobbit-size people、直立人 Homo erectus 和纳莱迪人 Homo naledi。另外其中还包括其他年代更接近人类和黑猩猩共同祖先的物种。

   这份清单比较保守,只选择了那些差不多得到普遍认可的人类物种。例如,最近发现的矮人物种吕宋人 dwarf human species Homo luzonensis ——凭借在菲律宾洞穴中出土的几块骨头而认定的人类物种——就没有被列入史密森学会的名单。

                                  

Human evolution The story of human evolution begins in Africa 7 million years ago.jpg

图1  Anthropological models based on fossils from the human evolutionary tree.

基于人类进化树化石的人类学模型。

P.PLAILLY/E.DAYNES/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY

https://www.newscientist.com/definition/human-evolution/

                                        

Benjamin Plackett 2021-06-01 How many early human species 11_副本.jpg

图2  The skulls of various human species  (Image credit: Shutterstock)

各种人类的头骨(图片来源:Shutterstock)

https://www.livescience.com/how-many-human-species.html

                                   

古人类?不知道是什么.jpeg

图3  https://view.inews.qq.com/a/20220421A02QYU00

                               

Human Family Tree, The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History.jpg

图4  Human Family Tree, The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

人类家谱,史密森国家自然历史博物馆

https://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree

                                    

A facial reconstruction of Homo heidelbergensis.jpg

图5  A facial reconstruction of Homo heidelbergensis, a popular candidate as a common ancestor for modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans John Gurche

海德堡人的面部重建,海德堡人是现代人类、尼安德特人和丹尼索瓦人的共同祖先

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/essential-timeline-understanding-evolution-homo-sapiens-180976807/

https://th-thumbnailer.cdn-si-edu.com/sI3TPNwue-E-2P7MSjQdZM8cbJA=/fit-in/1072x0/filters:focal(395x366:396x367)/https://tf-cmsv2-smithsonianmag-media.s3.amazonaws.com/filer/ad/87/ad873224-ef9b-4b54-9f8b-d471b4609f26/2009-49418-h-heidelbergensis-jgurche_web.jpg

                              

A visual representation of the breakdown of geological time. The Anthropocene wo.jpg

图6  The Age of Humans: Evolutionary Perspectives on the Anthropocene, The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

人类时代:人类世的进化视角,史密森国家自然历史博物馆

https://humanorigins.si.edu/research/age-humans-evolutionary-perspectives-anthropocene

https://humanorigins.si.edu/sites/default/files/styles/full_width/public/Geological_time_spiral%20for%20HOP%20for%20web_0.jpg.webp?itok=IOfagBJE


   史密森国家自然历史博物馆在“The Age of Humans: Evolutionary Perspectives on the Anthropocene”一文里说:

https://humanorigins.si.edu/research/age-humans-evolutionary-perspectives-anthropocene

   Geological epochs are one of the definable units that geologists and paleontologists use to break down the broad concept of deep time. These units of time are defined by stratigraphic layers that are chemically or biologically distinct. Epochs are defined on a global level, and their beginning and end are dated to specific points in time. Hominins first appear by around 6 million years ago, in the Miocene epoch, which ended about 5.3 million years ago. Our evolutionary path takes us through the Pliocene, the Pleistocene, and finally into the Holocene, starting about 12,000 years ago. The Anthropocenewould follow the Holocene.

   [机器翻译] 地质时代是地质学家和古生物学家用来打破深层时间这一广义概念的可定义单位之一。这些时间单位由化学或生物上不同的地层定义。时代是在全球范围内定义的,其开始和结束日期都是特定的时间点。人类最早出现于约600万年前,即中新世,约530万年前结束。我们的进化之路带我们经历了上新世更新世,最后进入了全新世,大约始于12000年前。全新之后是人类世

                         

参考资料:

[1] 新华社,2021-02-17,到底有多少种早期人类?美媒:至少21种

https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1691929353220933666&wfr=spider&for=pc

[2] Benjamin Plackett , 2021-06-01, How many early human species existed on Earth?

https://www.livescience.com/how-many-human-species.html

The skulls of various human species  (Image credit: Shutterstock)

各种人类的头骨(图片来源:Shutterstock)

https://cdn.mos.cms.futurecdn.net/TXRzb4EjJMshkYMHX8Hjin-970-80.jpg.webp

[3] NewScientist, Human evolution, The story of human evolution begins in Africa 7 million years ago

https://www.newscientist.com/definition/human-evolution/

   Until recently, the out-of-Africa paradigm had Homo sapiens evolving in East Africa around 150,000 years ago, becoming capable of modern behaviours around 60,000 years ago, and then migrating en masse to colonise the entire world. But new analyses of fossils, tools and DNA tell a different story. It looks like our species is far older – at least 300,000 years old – and was behaviourally sophisticated from the start. We did evolve in Africa but, rather than originating in one region, we emerged from populations across the continent in a process called “African multiregionalism”. Everything, from the identity of our last ancestor, when our species left Africa and what happened next, is up for revision. These are interesting times to be exploring the human story – no doubt, there will be more plot twists to come.

[4] 2022-02-12,第一个原始人长啥样?150万年前的化石,或改写“走出非洲”理论

https://baijiahao.baidu.com/s?id=1724552279803817513&wfr=spider&for=pc

[5] 2022-04-21,300万年前,第一个人类身份确定!问题是,他的父母是人类吗?

https://view.inews.qq.com/a/20220421A02QYU00

[6] 科普中国,2019-03-08,[科普中国]-早在4万年前,古人类就在青藏高原开“石器厂”了!

https://www.kepuchina.cn/article/articleinfo?business_type=100&classify=1&ar_id=163356

[7] 科普中国,2022-07-16,科学家揭秘:1.4万年前的古人类“蒙自人”长啥样?

https://www.kepuchina.cn/article/articleinfo?business_type=100&classify=1&ar_id=104289

[8] Human Family Tree, The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

https://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-family-tree

[9] 2021-02-02, An Evolutionary Timeline of Homo Sapiens,  An Evolutionary Timeline of Homo Sapiens

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/essential-timeline-understanding-evolution-homo-sapiens-180976807/

                                                    

相关链接:

[1] 2022-11-29,[打听] 原始人(大猿)的抵抗力(免疫力)比人更强吗?

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1365802.html

[2] 2012-09-22,[求教] 还有那些高等动物没有尾巴?

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-615751.html

[3] 2012-09-20,[求教] 人类为什么没有尾巴?

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-614734.html

                                    

[4] 2022-11-28,[小资料] 技术的社会形态

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1365644.html

[5] 2022-10-14,[小资料] 阿诺德原理、复杂的模型几乎毫无用处:出自 1998年《On teaching mathematics》

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1359459.html

[6] 2022-10-06,[小资料] 两次获得诺贝尔奖的科学家们

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1358235.html

               

感谢您的指教!

感谢您指正以上任何错误!

感谢您提供更多的相关资料!

                                    

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