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这个国际标准(ISO 22300:2018)是这样解释的Hazard

已有 1614 次阅读 2018-11-21 17:28 |个人分类:1|系统分类:观点评述| 国际标准, iso2300, hazard

这个国际标准(ISO 223002018)是这样解释的Hazard 


关键词: 国际标准,iso2300,hazard

ISO 22300:2018(en) Security and resilience — Vocabulary

3.6

all-hazards

naturally occurring event(3.82), human induced event (both intentional and unintentional) and technology caused event with potential impact (3.107) on an organization(3.158), community(3.42) or society and the environment on which it depends 

3.99

hazard

source of potential harm

Note 1 to entry: Hazard can be a risk source (3.213).

[SOURCE: ISO/Guide 73:2009, 3.5.1.4] 

根据3.99hazard不一定是能量和物质,但理解为能量和物质也符合这一条。理解为能量和物质的状态也符合这一条。这一条并没说hazard具体是什么,只说是危害或者损失的来源(不是根源root)。来源可以理解为能量和物质,由能量和物质而来;也可以理解为能量和物质的非正常状态,正常状态的能量和物质本身不会产生损失。 

此外,hazard先产生一个事件,事件再产生损失或者危害(harm),原因是,没有事件是不可能有损失的。因此,hazard可以定义为造成损失的事件的来源,这和3.99定义的损害的来源,实质意思是一样的。 

此外,hazard本身也是一个事件,这在3.6的解释中可以证实。这说明,事故原因、事故、事故的后果,其性质都一样是一个事件event而已,这就可以不使用更多的名词(如事故前兆等等),而以一个名词event涵盖其他。 

关于event,ISO 22300:2018(en)是这样解释的:

3.82

event

occurrence or change of a particular set of circumstances

Note 1 to entry: An event can be one or more occurrences, and can have several causes.

Note 2 to entry: An event can consist of something not happening.

Note 3 to entry: An event can sometimes be referred to as an incident (3.111) or “accident”.

Note 4 to entry: An event without consequences (3.46) can also be referred to as a “near miss”, “incident”, “near hit” or “close call”.

Note 5 to entry: The nature, likelihood (3.133), and consequence of an event cannot be fully knowable.

Note 6 to entry: Likelihood associated with the event can be determined.

Note 7 to entry: An event can consist of a non-occurrence of one or more circumstances.

Note 8 to entry: An event with a consequence is sometimes referred to as an incident.

[SOURCE: ISO/Guide 73:2009, 3.5.1.3, modified — Notes 5 to 8 to entry have been added.] 

根据这一段解释,event可以是incident,near miss, near hit, accident, close call, occurrence, circumstance.他们都基本是一个意思,都是“事件”,都是“时空中的一个点”(维基百科Wikipedia)



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