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咬文嚼字:dash, dash, dash!(更新版)

已有 797 次阅读 2020-8-7 02:39 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:论文交流| dash

咬文嚼字:dash, dash, dash!(旧版-已蔽; 已有 2096 阅读 2018-7-8 19:20


Dash 作为动词,可以“跑” (run or travel somewhere in a great hurry, as in

"I dashed into the garden so that the darkness could cover my tears.")



dash 翻“横杠”,其中“学”多多。不信?你自己看:





Hyphens, Em Dashes, and En Dashes: When to Use Them and How to Type Them



What is a dash?

There are two similar but distinct punctuation marks called dashes: the en dash ( – ) and the em dash ( — ). In appearance, an en dash is slightly longer than a hyphen ( - ), approximately the width of a capital N, while an em dash is slightly longer than an en dash, approximately the width of a capital M (hence their names).


英文中常用的横杠有两种:短的[en dash ( – )]和的[em dash ( — )]。

Hyphens vs. en dashes

Because they are so similar in appearance (and because there is no dedicated “en dash” button on a keyboard), many writers tend to simply use hyphens in place of en dashes in all cases for the sake of ease.






Indicating a range of values


The most common use of the en dash is to connect two numbers, dates, or times to indicate a range that spans these figures. We can think of the en dash as representing the words to or through when it is used in this way. 


也就是一般可以把 en dash 当成through”



For example:

·       “Please refer to pages 83–88 for more information.”

·       “The clinic is open Monday–Friday.”

·       “We need you to submit your expense report for January–March.”

·       “The company had been a fixture in the community from 1998–2006.”


… (里省去啰嗦的解。)

·       “I’ll be in the office 8:00 AM–4:00 PM this Friday.”

·       “The November 2010–February 2011 sales figures were a bit lower than we had hoped.”


… (里省去啰嗦的解。)

·        “Please be aware that we will be closed Thurs.–Mon.

·       “We’ll be staying with my in-laws from Apr.–Aug. while our house is renovated.”



How to type an en dash—if you care


To create one manually on a computer running Windows, hold the left Alt button on your keyboard and type 0150 on the number pad (with Num Lock enabled). If you are using a Mac computer, hold Option and hit the hyphen button to create an en dash.





Em dashes

Em dashes (also known as m-dashes or em rules) are primarily used to indicate parenthetical information. In this way, they act as more emphatic alternatives to commas and parentheses. While parentheses and commas are used to include parenthetical information more naturally and subtly in a sentence, a dash creates a more forceful break in the text that serves to emphasize and highlight such information. 

In addition, em dashes can be used instead of colons in less formal writing, and they can also be used to represent missing or omitted text and to indicate a break in dialogue.



In place of parentheses



Let’s look at one example:

-  “I know that my friend Stephen (the poor dear!) has found living on his own very difficult.”

-  “I know that my friend Stephen—the poor dear!—has found living on his own very difficult.”


How to type an em dash—useful tip


 If you are using a Windows-based computer, hold the left Alt button on your keyboard and type 0151 on the number pad (with Num Lock enabled). If you are using a Mac computer, hold Shift + Option and hit the hyphen button to create an em dash.







In “3-day mean,” you use hyphen. 

In “30–60-day oscillations,” you use n-dash (–, longer than hyphen -) between 30 and 60, and you use hyphen (the shortest one) between 60 and day.




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