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科技英语写作基础(系列):容易用错的词和词组(C开头的) 精选

已有 2832 次阅读 2018-12-14 05:51 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语, 写作, 词组


如果你的目标是写小说,应该看原版The Elements of Style (免费下载):

http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf

 

为了“完整”性,我们继续用The Elements of Style 不喜欢看英文原著的,凑合着看我的注解(不是翻译)。

有时,我会用Google Translate。GT现在还不成熟,你不要拿它当回事。

 

IV Words and Expressions Commonly Misused 

第四部分(45-63页),我只挑其中一小部分注解一下,因为我们是学习科技英语写作。如果你“喜欢”另外一些词,请告诉我。我会考虑补充。

Can. Means "am (is, are) able." Not to be used as a substitute for may.

注解:can=能。不要用may 去代替can。

Can you help me? 

应该是用 Could you help me? Would you be kind enough to help me?

Can I help you? 可以用。


Care less. The dismissive "I couldn't care less" is often used with the shortened "not" mistakenly (and mysteriously) omitted: "I could care less." The error destroys the meaning of the sentence and is careless indeed.

Google Translate: 不屑一顾的“我不在乎”经常被用于缩短的“不”错误地(并且神秘地)省略:“我可以少关心。”这个错误破坏了句子的意思,确实是粗心的。

注解: 科技英语写作时,常常出现careless(一个词)的错误。扯远了。


Case. Often unnecessary. 

注解:原作者说 可以不用case,我知道科技英语常常需要用case 1,case 2,等等。

In many cases, the rooms lacked air conditioning. 

修改后:Many of the rooms lacked air conditioning. 

 

It has rarely been the case that any mistake has been made. 

修改后:Few mistakes have been made. 

 

Certainly. Used indiscriminately by some speakers, much as others use very, in an attempt to intensify any and every statement. A mannerism of this kind, bad in speech, is even worse in writing.

Google Translate: 一些发言者不分青红皂白地使用,就像其他人使用的那样,试图加强任何声明。这种习惯,言语不好,写作更糟糕。

注解:不要随随便便用certainly, 或very。

 

Character. Often simply redundant, used from a mere habit of wordiness. 

注解:常常是蛇脚一只。

acts of a hostile character 

修改后:hostile acts 


Claim. (verb). With object-noun, means "lay claim to." May be used with a dependent clause if this sense is clearly intended: "She claimed that she was the sole heir." (But even here claimed to bewould be better.) Not to be used as a substitute for declare, maintain, orcharge. 

Google Translate: 对象名词,意思是“声称对象”。如果明确表达这种意义,可以使用附属条款:“她声称她是唯一的继承人。” (但即使在这里声称会更好。)不得用作声明,维护或收费的替代品。

注解:不能替代declare, maintain, charge. 

He claimed he knew how. 

修改后:He declared he knew how. 

 

Clever. Note that the word means one thing when applied to people, another when applied to horses. A clever horse is a good-natured one, not an ingenious one.

Google Translate: 请注意,这个词在应用于人时意味着一件事,在应用于马时意味着另一件事。聪明的马是一个善良的马,而不是一个巧妙的马。
注解:说clever人和clever马,不是说的一回事。人clever是聪明。马clever是好个性。(我觉得clever有时不是smart,而是小聪明。)

 

Compare. To compare tois to point out or imply resemblances between objects regarded as essentially of a different order; to compare withis mainly to point out differences between objects regarded as essentially of the same order. Thus, life has been compared toa pilgrimage, to a drama, to a battle; Congress may be compared withthe British Parliament. Paris has been compared to ancient Athens; it may be compared withmodern London. 

Google Translate: 比较是指出或暗示被视为基本上属于不同顺序的对象之间的相似性;比较主要是指出被视为基本相同顺序的对象之间的差异。因此,生活被比作朝圣,戏剧,战斗;国会可能会与英国议会进行比较。巴黎被比作古代雅典;它可能与现代伦敦相比。

注解:To compare to强调相似性,而 to compare with强调差异。好像没有审稿人会这么认真。


Comprise. Literally, "embrace": A zoo comprises mammals, reptiles, and birds (because it "embraces," or "includes," them). But animals do not comprise ("embrace") a zoo —they constitute a zoo.

Google Translate: 从字面上看,“拥抱”:动物园包括哺乳动物,爬行动物和鸟类(因为它“包含”或“包含”它们)。但动物不包括(“拥抱”)动物园 - 它们构成动物园。

注解:动物园comprises各种动物。动物 不能comprise动物园,它们constitute a zoo。

 

Consider. Not followed by as when it means "believe to be." 

注解:如果后面不跟as,是“相信是“。

 

I consider him as competent. 

修改后:I consider him competent. 

 

When considered means "examined" or "discussed," it is followed by as: 

注解:如果是用于“检查”或“讨论”,后面跟as。

The lecturer considered Eisenhower first as soldier and second as administrator. 


Contact. As a transitive verb, the word is vague and self-important. Do not contact people; get in touch with them, look them up, phone them, find them, or meet them.

Google Translate: 作为及物动词,这个词含糊不清,非常重要。不要联系人;与他们取得联系,查找,打电话,找到他们或与他们见面。

注解:不可以说Let me contact you later. 用Let me get in touch with you later.


Cope. An intransitive verb used with with. In formal writing, one doesn't "cope," one "copes with" something or somebody. 

注解:cope后面需要with。

I knew they'd cope. (jocular) 

修改后:I knew they would cope with the situation. 


Currently. In the sense of nowwith a verb in the present tense, currently is usually redundant; emphasis is better achieved through a more precise reference to time. 

Google Translate: 从现在的意义上说,现在时的动词,目前通常是多余的; 通过更准确地提及时间来更好地实现重点。

 

We are currently reviewing your application. 

修改后:We are at this moment reviewing your application. 

抗议一下:我,不同意。

 

昨天被小编带红花,有点小激动。可是,真的没有信心做完w。


[科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146690

 科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(2)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146716

1.    语态(1)

2.    常用时态

3.    一些标点符号“规则”(句号、逗号,参考The Elements of Style Part I)

4.    一些语法“规则”(主语、谓语的一致性、变化多端的代词、分词短语的主人,参考The Elements of Style Part I

5.    一些基本的写作“原则”(文章结构、段落、语态、简洁性等,参考The Elements of Style

6.    一些容易用错的词和词组(参考The Elements of Style

7.    修改、修改、再修改[简洁为上, see Chapter 7 Concision by Joseph/三种修饰语+两种“问题修饰语”,即悬空修饰语(p161)、错位修饰语/, see Chapter 8 Length by Joseph/逻辑性/一致性]

 

请大家多提意见。




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