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分子遗传学阅读文献:基因表达调控之六

已有 7256 次阅读 2008-9-3 17:40 |个人分类:科学感想|系统分类:科研笔记| 基因, 分子遗传学阅读文献, 表达调控

Conservation of transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants and fungi

Conservation of transgene-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants and fungi

Current perspectives on mRNA stability in plants: multiple levels and mechanism of control

 

Gutiérrez RA, MacIntosh GC, Green PJ. Current perspectives on mRNA stability in plants: multiple levels and mechanisms of control. Trends Plant Sci. 1999 Nov; 4 (11): 429-438.

 

The control of mRNA stability plays a fundamental role in the regulation of gene expression in plants and other eukaryotes. This control can be influenced by the basal mRNA decay machinery, sequence-specific decay components, and regulatory factors that respond to various stimuli. Important progress has been made towards the identification of some of these elements over the past several years. This is true particularly with respect to cis-acting sequences that control mRNA stability, the identification of which has been the focus of much of the initial work in the field. Characterization of mRNA fragments associated with post-transcriptional gene silencing and two plant transcripts that give rise to detectable decay intermediates have provided insight into the mRNA decay pathways. These, and other studies, are indicative of similarities, as well as of interesting differences between mRNA decay mechanisms in plants and yeast - the system that has been used for most of the pioneering work. Future studies in this area, particularly when enhanced by emerging genetic and genomic approaches, have tremendous potential to provide additional knowledge that is unique to plants or of broad significance.

Current perspectives on mRNA stability in plants-multiple levels and mechanism of control

Regulation of short-distance transport of RNA and protein

 

Kim JY. Regulation of short-distance transport of RNA and protein. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2005 Feb; 8 (1): 45-52.

 

The intercellular trafficking of proteins and RNAs has emerged as a novel mechanism of cell-cell communication in plant development. Plasmodesmata (PD), intercellular cytoplasmic channels, have a central role in cell-cell trafficking of regulatory proteins and RNAs. Recent studies have demonstrated that plants use either a selective or a non-selective PD trafficking pathway for regulatory proteins. Moreover, plants have developed strategies to regulate both selective and non-selective movement. Recent work has focused especially on integrating the recent understanding of the function and mechanisms of intercellular macromolecule movement through PD.

 Regulation of short-distance transport of RNA and protein

Systemic transport of RNA in plants

Systemic transport of RNA in plants

The complex language of chromatin regulation during transcription

 

Berger SL. The complex language of chromatin regulation during transcription. Nature. 2007 May 24; 447 (7143): 407-12.

 

An important development in understanding the influence of chromatin on gene regulation has been the finding that DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications lead to the recruitment of protein complexes that regulate transcription. Early interpretations of this phenomenon involved gene regulation reflecting predictive activating or repressing types of modification. However, further exploration reveals that transcription occurs against a backdrop of mixtures of complex modifications, which probably have several roles. Although such modifications were initially thought to be a simple code, a more likely model is of a sophisticated, nuanced chromatin 'language' in which different combinations of basic building blocks yield dynamic functional outcomes.

The complex language of chromatin regulation during transcription

Regulatory mechanism of plant gene transcription by GT-elements and GT-factors

 

Zhou DX. Regulatory mechanism of plant gene transcription by GT-elements and GT-factors. Trends Plant Sci. 1999 Jun; 4 (6): 210-214.

 

GT-elements are regulatory DNA sequences ususally found in tandem repeats in the promoter region of many different plant genes. Depending on promoter structure, GT-elements can have a positive or a negative transcription function. The cognate GT-element binding factors contain one or two trihelix DNA binding motifs, which have so far been identified in plant transcription factors only. GT-factors are ubiquitously expressed; in Arabidopsis they belong to a small family of transcription factors. The functioning of plant GT-elements and GT-factors shows complex regulatory features of plant gene transcription.

Regulatory mechanism of plant gene transcription by GT-elements and GT-factors

Regulation of translational initiation in plants

 

Kawaguchi R, Bailey-Serres J. Regulation of translational initiation in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2002 Oct; 5 (5): 460-5.

 

The abundance of cytosolic mRNA does not necessarily correspond to the quantity of polypeptide synthesized in plant cells. The initiation of mRNA translation is regulated at the global and message-specific levels. mRNAs compete for discriminatory initiation factors that couple the 5'-(7m)GpppN-cap and the 3'-poly(A) tail of the RNA message. The resultant circularization of the mRNA promotes the association of the 43S pre-initiation complex that scans the 5'-leader for the initiation codon of the protein coding sequence. The physiological and developmental regulation of these events governs the level of polypeptide synthesis from endogenous and viral transcripts.

 

Regulation of translational initiation in plants



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