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Cutty Sark ----- 航海时代的没落英雄 精选

已有 13415 次阅读 2016-2-19 08:39 |个人分类:海外浏览|系统分类:海外观察| 商船, 航海

  在英国的格林威治,天文台山脚下,伦敦河侧岸边,坐落着一条巨大的帆船,这就是曾领一代风骚的卡蒂萨克(Cutty Sark)号帆船。

卡蒂萨克

      今天的卡蒂萨克仍然英姿不减当年,然而以水为生的她如今只能望水兴叹。几只耸立的桅杆可以想象出她张满风帆时俊美,然而失去风帆的她就像失去了青春的美发,衰老而没落。尽管大大的船舱承载着满满的记忆,垂暮的英雄可饭否?    

博物馆里展出的船首像 

   卡蒂萨克(Cutty Sark)的名字来源于写下那首脍炙人口《友谊地久天长》的苏格兰著名诗人罗伯特.彭斯(Robert Berns)的《汤姆奥桑特(Tam o' Shanter》。这是一首浪漫幽默的长叙事诗,讲述一位好杯中之物的汤姆忘了老婆的叮嘱赶集醉归时遇上了群鬼大联欢,看到了其中的女鬼南尼。南尼的昵称就是Cutty Sark,苏格兰语意为短背心,当时她穿的正是她做姑娘时家里倾其家产两镑钱买的短背心。南尼跳舞跳得疯狂,让汤姆心旌动摇,忘乎所以,不由自主地喊出后来成为著名警句的“Weel done, Cutty-sark”一语惊爆群魔,汤姆遭到追杀,跑在最前面的正是南尼。幸亏他的坐骑梅琪拼命奋力奔跑,以一条尾巴的代价将汤姆带到河桥上,河把群魔拦住了。卡蒂萨克最早的船首像正是穿着短背心袒胸露背的南尼,跑得更快的梅琪也可在船上找到。

      驾盘

   提到卡蒂萨克,学过《新概念英语》的人都还记得第三册25课讲了一个她和塞姆皮雷号的赛事:

     人们在格林威治仍可看到19世纪最有名的帆船之一卡蒂萨克号。它停在陆地上,每年接待成千上万的参观者。它给人们留下深刻的印象,使人们回忆起历史上的巨型帆船。在蒸汽船取代帆船之前,卡蒂萨克号之类的帆船被用来从中国运回茶叶,从澳大利亚运回羊毛。卡蒂萨克号是帆船制造史上建造的最快的一艘帆船。唯一可以与之一比高低的是塞姆皮雷号帆船。两船于1872618日同时从上海启航驶往英国,途中展开了一场激烈的比赛。这场比赛持续了整整4个月,是这类比赛中的最后一次,它标志着帆船伟大传统的结束与一个新纪元的开始。 
    比赛开始后,赛姆皮雷号率先抵达爪哇岛。但在印度洋上,卡蒂萨克号驶到了前面。看来,它首先返抵英国是确信无疑的了,但它却在比赛中连遭厄运。8月份卡蒂萨克号遭到了一场特大风暴的袭击,失去了一只舵。船身左右摇晃,无法操纵。船员用备用的木板在船上赶制了一只应急用的舵,并克服重重困难将舵安装就位。这样一来,大大降低了船的航速。因为船不能开得太快,否则就有危险,应急舵也会被刮走。因为这个缘故,卡蒂萨克号落到了后面。跨越赤道后,船长将船停靠在一个港口,在那儿换了一只舵。但此时,塞姆皮雷号早已在500多英里之遥了。尽管换装新舵时分秒必争,但卡蒂萨克号已经不可能取胜了,它抵达英国时比塞姆皮雷号晚了 1个星期。但考虑到路上的多次耽搁,这个成绩也已很不容易了。毫无疑问,如果中途没有失去舵,卡蒂萨克号肯定能在比赛中轻易夺冠。——译文摘自网上

甲板

    首航于1869年的卡蒂萨克,出生英国,身份高贵,原本必定叱咤风云,终生成为海洋霸主,傲视群舟。然而,时代前进的步伐比她的年龄走得更快。那是工业革命已经改变了人们的生活,一方面商业大大加强了航海的需求,另一方面蒸汽机等新技术大踏步地从实验室里走向工业,自然包括航海。所以卡蒂萨克在航行的第一天起就受到了来自蒸汽航船的威胁。卡蒂萨克初航用于到中国运回茶叶,当起了海上丝绸之路的骆驼。当时,好赌的英国人喜欢下注那只船运茶叶运的时间短,这就是当时很流行的“茶叶赛”。在卡蒂萨克前,总是美国造的船取胜,所以卡蒂萨克承担着为英国人挣回颜面的重任,而她也确实不辱使命,创造了最长的周航程。然而,将她逼出航道的不是美国造,而是蒸汽机。几乎和卡蒂萨克同时出生的阿格蒙侬(Agamemnon)号,这艘经过改进的蒸汽商船,效率大大提高,性能优越,还没有那帆船看天吃饭和之字形航线的限制,已经可以叫板帆船了。卡蒂萨克的开航也恰巧碰上了苏伊士运河的开通,这大大缩短了茶叶航运的航程,运河道狭风小,不利风帆却特别适合蒸汽商船。没几年后,去中国的航线就被越来越多的蒸汽船挤满。不过,蒸汽船毕竟依赖化石原料,远航中,帆船还是占上风。所以卡蒂萨克开始了去澳大利亚运羊毛的航程。没多长时间,卡蒂萨克的优势也被阿格蒙侬取代,她不得不退出角逐。1895年,正值壮年的曾是凤头的她连凤尾也当不了了,不得不屈就二线,被更名为Ferreira并卖到了葡萄牙去当鸡头。在葡萄牙,她作为商船航行了二十几年,1922年从商船退休成为教练船,同年回到了英国,改回原名卡蒂萨克,最后登陆格林威治。不过上岸后的卡蒂萨克厄运并没有到头,她先后遭到两次火灾,特别是2007年的一场火灾几乎把卡蒂萨克烧得只剩了骨架。后来英国政府拆资重建,使得脱胎留骨的卡蒂萨克成为现在世界上仅存的三艘19世纪快帆之一,也成为今天我们看到的博物馆。

船摸

(船舱里的中国茶


船舱里的澳洲羊毛


船底 

   现在的卡蒂萨克成为博物馆,属于一个基金会,主席正是英国女王的丈夫爱丁堡公爵。走进博物馆,我们可以看到卡蒂萨克从中国运回的茶箱,从澳大利亚运回的羊毛,船员船舱,驾驶台,会议室,甲板等。现代的影像技术也重现了当时的海员在风浪起伏,无边无际的海上生活。正好像漫游在19世纪的海上。船底有个大大的空间,很多聚会如圣诞晚会会在这里举行。 

船员


会议室


办公室

卧室


厨房)

   卡蒂萨克的历史令人唏嘘。她的辉煌和她的没落都是时代的必然。她是历史,她却改变不了历史,但在广袤的大海和悠长的航史上她留下了优美的身姿。


小资料:卡蒂萨克:船型:快帆,吨位:963;排水量:2133吨;长:外壳64.77m,总长83.53m;宽:10.97m;最高速度:32.4km/h;载重:1542吨。

 

1 新概念英语第三册25课原文

One of the most famous sailing ships of thenineteenth century, the Cutty Sark, can still be seen at Greenwich. She standson dry land and is visited by thousands of people each year. She serves as animpressive reminder of the great ships of the past. Before they were replacedby steam-ships, sailing vessels like the Cutty Sark were used to carry tea fromChina and wool from Australia.  The Cutty Sark was one of the fastestsailing ships that has ever been built. The only other ship to match her wasthe Thermopylae. Both these ships set out from Shanghai on June 18th, 1872 onan exciting race to England. This race, which went on for exactly four months,was the last of its kind. It marked the end of the great tradition of shipswith sails and the beginning of a new era.

The first of the two ships to reach Java afterthe race had begun was the Thermopylae, but on the Indian Ocean, the Cutty Sarktook the lead. It seemed certain that she would be the first ship home, butduring the race she had a lot of bad luck. In August, she was struck by a veryheavy storm during which her rudder was torn away. The Cutty Sark rolled fromside to side and it became impossible to steer her. A temporary rudder was madeon board from spare planks and it was fitted with great difficulty. Thisgreatly reduced the speed of the ship, for there was danger that if shetravelled too quickly, this rudder would be torn away as well. Because of this,the Cutty Sark lost her lead. After crossing the equator , the captain calledin at a port to have a new rudder fitted, but by now the Thermopylae was overfive hundred miles ahead. Though the new rudder was fitted at tremendous speed,it was impossible for the Cutty Sark to win. She arrived in England a weekafter the Thermopylae. Even this was remarkable, considering that she had hadso many delays. There is no doubt that if she had not lost her rudder she wouldhave won the race easily.

 

2 彭斯原诗 Robert Berns " Tam o' Shanter"

When chapmanbillies leave the street,

And drouthyneibors, neibors, meet;

As market daysare wearing late,

And folk beginto tak the gate,

While we sitbousing at the nappy,

An' getting fouand unco happy,

We think na onthe lang Scots miles,

The mosses,waters, slaps and stiles,

That lie betweenus and our hame,

Where sits oursulky, sullen dame,

Gathering herbrows like gathering storm,

Nursing herwrath to keep it warm.

 

This truth fandhonest Tam o' Shanter,

As he frae Ayr aenight did canter:

(Auld Ayr, whamne'er a town surpasses,

For honest menand bonie lasses).

 

O Tam! had'stthou but been sae wise,

As taen thy ainwife Kate's advice!

She tauld theeweel thou was a skellum,

A blethering,blustering, drunken blellum;

That fraeNovember till October,

Ae market-daythou was na sober;

That ilka melderwi' the Miller,

Thou sat as langas thou had siller;

That ev'ry naigwas ca'd a shoe on

The Smith andthee gat roarin' fou on;

That at theLord's house, ev'n on Sunday,

Thou drank wi'Kirkton Jean till Monday,

She prophesiedthat late or soon,

Thou wad befound, deep drown'd in Doon,

Or catch'd wi'warlocks in the mirk,

By Alloway'sauld, haunted kirk.

 

Ah, gentledames! it gars me greet,

To think howmony counsels sweet,

How monylengthen'd, sage advices,

The husband fraethe wife despises!

 

But to our tale:Ae market night,

Tam had gotplanted unco right,

Fast by aningle, bleezing finely,

Wi reamingswats, that drank divinely;

And at hiselbow, Souter Johnie,

His ancient,trusty, drougthy crony:

Tam lo'ed himlike a very brither;

They had beenfou for weeks thegither.

The night draveon wi' sangs an' clatter;

And aye the alewas growing better:

The Landlady andTam grew gracious,

Wi' favourssecret, sweet, and precious:

The Souter tauldhis queerest stories;

The Landlord'slaugh was ready chorus:

The stormwithout might rair and rustle,

Tam did na mindthe storm a whistle.

 

Care, mad to seea man sae happy,

E'en drown'dhimsel amang the nappy.

As bees fleehame wi' lades o' treasure,

The minuteswing'd their way wi' pleasure:

Kings may beblest, but Tam was glorious,

O'er a' the illso' life victorious!

 

But pleasuresare like poppies spread,

You seize theflow'r, its bloom is shed;

Or like the snowfalls in the river,

A moment white -then melts for ever;

Or like theBorealis race,

That flit ereyou can point their place;

Or like theRainbow's lovely form

Evanishing amidthe storm. -

Nae man cantether Time nor Tide,

The hourapproaches Tam maun ride;

That hour, o'night's black arch the key-stane,

That dreary hourhe mounts his beast in;

And sic a nighthe taks the road in,

As ne'er poorsinner was abroad in.

 

The wind blew as'twad blawn its last;

The rattlingshowers rose on the blast;

The speedygleams the darkness swallow'd;

Loud, deep, andlang, the thunder bellow'd:

That night, achild might understand,

The deil hadbusiness on his hand.

 

Weel-mounted onhis grey mare, Meg,

A better neverlifted leg,

Tam skelpit onthro' dub and mire,

Despising wind,and rain, and fire;

Whiles holdingfast his gude blue bonnet,

Whiles crooningo'er some auld Scots sonnet,

Whiles glow'rinround wi' prudent cares,

Lest boglescatch him unawares;

Kirk-Alloway wasdrawing nigh,

Where ghaistsand houlets nightly cry.

 

By this time hewas cross the ford,

Where in thesnaw the chapman smoor'd;

And past thebirks and meikle stane,

Where drunkenCharlie brak's neck-bane;

And thro' thewhins, and by the cairn,

Where huntersfand the murder'd bairn;

And near thethorn, aboon the well,

Where Mungo'smither hang'd hersel'.

Before him Doonpours all his floods,

The doublingstorm roars thro' the woods,

The lightningsflash from pole to pole,

Near and morenear the thunders roll,

When, glimmeringthro' the groaning trees,

Kirk-Allowayseem'd in a bleeze,

Thro' ilka borethe beams were glancing,

And loudresounded mirth and dancing.

 

Inspiring boldJohn Barleycorn!

What dangersthou canst make us scorn!

Wi' tippenny, wefear nae evil;

Wi' usquabae,we'll face the devil!

The swats saeream'd in Tammie's noddle,

Fair play, hecar'd na deils a boddle,

But Maggiestood, right sair astonish'd,

Till, by theheel and hand admonish'd,

She ventur'dforward on the light;

And, wow! Tamsaw an unco sight!

 

Warlocks andwitches in a dance:

Nae cotillon,brent new frae France,

But hornpipes,jigs, strathspeys, and reels,

Put life andmettle in their heels.

A winnock-bunkerin the east,

There sat auldNick, in shape o' beast;

A towzie tyke,black, grim, and large,

To gie themmusic was his charge:

He screw'd thepipes and gart them skirl,

Till roof and raftersa' did dirl. -

Coffins stoodround, like open presses,

That shaw'd theDead in their last dresses;

And (by somedevilish cantraip sleight)

Each in itscauld hand held a light.

By which heroicTam was able

To note upon thehaly table,

A murderer'sbanes, in gibbet-airns;

Twa span-lang,wee, unchristened bairns;

A thief,new-cutted frae a rape,

Wi' his lastgasp his gab did gape;

Five tomahawks,wi' blude red-rusted:

Five scimitars,wi' murder crusted;

A garter which ababe had strangled:

A knife, afather's throat had mangled.

Whom his ain sonof life bereft,

The grey-hairsyet stack to the heft;

Wi' mair ofhorrible and awfu',

Which even toname wad be unlawfu'.

Three lawyerstongues, turned inside oot,

Wi' lies, seamedlike a beggars clout,

Three priestshearts, rotten, black as muck,

Lay stinkin,vile in every neuk.

 

As Tammieglowr'd, amaz'd, and curious,

The mirth andfun grew fast and furious;

The Piper loudand louder blew,

The dancers quickand quicker flew,

They reel'd,they set, they cross'd, they cleekit,

Till ilka carlinswat and reekit,

And coost herduddies to the wark,

And linkit at itin her sark!

 

Now Tam, O Tam!had they been queans,

A' plump andstrapping in their teens!

Their sarks,instead o' creeshie flainen,

Been snaw-whiteseventeen hunder linen!-

Thir breeks o'mine, my only pair,

That ance wereplush o' guid blue hair,

I wad hae gienthem off my hurdies,

For ae blink o'the bonie burdies!

But wither'dbeldams, auld and droll,

Rigwoodie hagswad spean a foal,

Louping an'flinging on a crummock.

I wonder did naturn thy stomach.

 

But Tam kentwhat was what fu' brawlie:

There was aewinsome wench and waulie

That nightenlisted in the core,

Lang after ken'don Carrick shore;

(For mony abeast to dead she shot,

And perish'dmony a bonie boat,

And shook baithmeikle corn and bear,

And kept thecountry-side in fear);

Her cutty sark,o' Paisley harn,

That while alassie she had worn,

In longitudetho' sorely scanty,

It was her best,and she was vauntie.

Ah! little ken'dthy reverend grannie,

That sark shecoft for her wee Nannie,

Wi twa pundScots ('twas a' her riches),

Wad ever grac'da dance of witches!

 

But here my Museher wing maun cour,

Sic flights arefar beyond her power;

To sing howNannie lap and flang,

(A souple jadeshe was and strang),

And how Tamstood, like ane bewithc'd,

And thought hisvery een enrich'd:

Even Satanglowr'd, and fidg'd fu' fain,

And hotch'd andblew wi' might and main:

Till first aecaper, syne anither,

Tam tint hisreason a thegither,

And roars out,"Weel done, Cutty-sark!"

And in aninstant all was dark:

And scarcely hadhe Maggie rallied.

When out thehellish legion sallied.

 

As bees bizz outwi' angry fyke,

When plunderingherds assail their byke;

As open pussie'smortal foes,

When, pop! shestarts before their nose;

As eager runsthe market-crowd,

When "Catchthe thief!" resounds aloud;

So Maggie runs,the witches follow,

Wi' mony aneldritch skreich and hollow.

 

Ah, Tam! Ah,Tam! thou'll get thy fairin!

In hell, they'llroast thee like a herrin!

In vain thy Kateawaits thy comin!

Kate soon willbe a woefu' woman!

Now, do thyspeedy-utmost, Meg,

And win thekey-stone o' the brig;

There, at themthou thy tail may toss,

A running streamthey dare na cross.

But ere thekeystane she could make,

The fient a tailshe had to shake!

For Nannie, farbefore the rest,

Hard upon nobleMaggie prest,

And flew at Tamwi' furious ettle;

But little wistshe Maggie's mettle!

Ae springbrought off her master hale,

But left behindher ain grey tail:

The carlinclaught her by the rump,

And left poorMaggie scarce a stump.

 

Now, wha thistale o' truth shall read,

Ilk man andmother's son, take heed:

Whene'er toDrink you are inclin'd,

Or Cutty-sarksrin in your mind,

Think ye may buythe joys o'er dear;

Remember Tam o'Shanter's mare.

 

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