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PUBMED医学文献数据库主题标引的原理与原则(1)

已有 3659 次阅读 2013-7-12 10:53 |个人分类:知识组织|系统分类:科研笔记| 数据库, 医学, 主题

马小姐译,许培扬校    红字是我校改的,大家可以参考。

The Indexing Process标引过程

  1. Read carefully and understand the title. 仔细地阅读并理解文献的标题。

  2. Read the introduction down to the point where the author states the purpose of his article and correlate it with the title. Absorb but do not necessarily attempt to index the introductory material since this is usually a statement of known facts upon which the present study is based.阅读介绍直到作者找到作者写明的文章目的,并与题名关联。理解介绍内容,但不必标引,由于这部分内容一般都是基于已发表研究的事实论述。

  3. Scan the body of the article, focus on the Materials & Methods section and the Results section.浏览文献全文,关注材料&方法以及结果部分。

  4. Note section headings, paragraph headings; italics, boldface; charts, plates, tables, illustrations; laboratory methods, case reports, etc. Headings supplied by the author usually herald the content of the section headed.注意每一部分、段落的标题;斜体、黑体;图表、底片(plates)、表格、插图;实验方法、病例报告等。作者提供的主题通常表明是栏目标题的内容。

  5. Select for indexing only those subjects actually discussed as opposed to those subjects merely mentioned (and of little or no value in retrieval). 仅选择实际讨论的主题进行标引,而不标引仅仅提到(不具有或几乎不具有检索意义)的主题。

  6. Read the summary or conclusions of the author to determine whether he achieved the aims set forth in his stated purpose. Weigh conclusions based on the text but do not index implications or suggested future applications. Do not index conclusive statements not supported by discussion in the text.阅读作者文摘或结论确定是否达到他阐述的目标。考虑文档的结论但不标引蕴含或暗示的潜在应用。不标引文献中未被讨论支持的已确定事实。

  7. Scan the abstract, if there, for items missed in indexing, being careful, however, to locate actual discussions within the text of the article; ignore mere implications.浏览摘要,判断是否有概念漏标,但要仔细查找到文献中实际论述问题,忽略小的潜在问题。

  8. Scan the author's own indexing if supplied or the keywords supplied by the publisher to see whether the concepts chosen are actually discussed in the text and if they have been indexed.如果存在,浏览作者提供的标引词或出版者提供的关键词,以判断提及概念在文中是否讨论且是否已标引。

  9. Scan the bibliographic references supplied by the author for clues and further corroboration. 浏览作者参考文献以提示并进一步确认。

 

Questions to ask while you are indexing  当你在进行文献标引时,要自问几个问题:

What are the major points of the article?文献的主要主题是什么?

What are the minor points of the article?文献的次要主题是什么?

What is discussed as opposed to what is only mentioned?哪些是文献论述的,哪些是文献仅仅提及的?

What is the slant of the article? Is it:文献的重点是什么?

·         experimental? 实验?

·         clinical? 临床?

·         pediatric? 儿科学?

·         geriatric? 老年医学?

·         obstetric? 产科学?

·         veterinary? 兽医学?

·         microbiological? 微生物学?

·         endocrinological? 内分泌学?

 

A good indexer   一个优秀的标引员

·         Does not let bias or knowledge of a subject alter how the article is indexed

index only what the article says

·         Does not read the article word for word

This takes time and does not always provide better indexing

·         Recognizes the authority of an article, and does not correct any of the assertions made in the article

Do not attempt to correct bad science or point out mistakes

·         Describes the concepts in an article using MeSH terms

Familiarize yourself with the MeSH, be aware of the terms available before you request a new term or use a general term

·         Always indexes using the most specific term

Examine the MeSH tree structure to ensure that you are using the most specific term possible

 

IM & NIM Terms IMNIM

IM & NIM Terms  

After finding all the MeSH terms correctly describing the content of an article, the indexer must also weigh the importance of these terms. For example, an article describing kinetics of lactate dehydrogenase, will be indexed with both LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE and KINETICS. However, the main point of this article is LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE, while KINETICS is simply a minor point, which further specifies what is happening with LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE. This distinction between the main and minor points of the article is designated as IM for the main point, and NIM for the minor point.

The origin of the designation IM and NIM comes from the time when terms describing major points of the article were printed in Index Medicus. IM meant printed in Index Medicus and NIM meant not printed in Index Medicus. IM terms are the main point of the article, while NIM terms are secondary terms supporting the major points of the article. IM concepts are designated by an asterisk (*).IM、NIM词的名称来源于描述文献主要论点的术语被出版成医学索引的时期。IM指被医学索引收录的词,NIM为非医学索引收录词。IM词是文献的主要论点,而NIM词是支持文献主要论点的次要论点。IM词的概念通过加星号(*)来区分。

 

IM TermsIM

IM terms are the main points of the article. Some common concepts that are frequently IM are:IM词为文献的主要论点,一些一般性概念通常为IM词:

·         Organs (LIVER) 组织(肝)

·         Diseases (HEPATITIS) 疾病(肝炎)

·         Organisms (HIV-1) 生物体(HIV-1)

·         Chemicals (ASPIRIN) 化学物质(阿司匹林)

·         Therapies (GENE THERAPY) 治疗方法(基因疗法)

·         Functions (DIGESTION) 功能(消化)

However, if any of the above are not the focus of the article, they would be indexed as an NIM concept. The determination of whether a term is IM or NIM depends on the importance of the concept in the article at hand. Some terms can never be made IM. For example geographic terms, such as “NEW YORK CITY” or “AFRICA”, can not be made IM. In general, most articles require no more than 5 IM terms. The indexer can use more than 5 IM terms if the article demands it. 但是,如果以上主题词在文献中并非重要论点,它们将被标引为NIM概念。决定术语标引为IM词还是NIM词取决于它在所标引文献的重要性。有些术语从未定义为IM词,例如地理术语,如“纽约市NEW YORK CITY” or “非洲AFRICA”,从未成为IM词。一般的,大部分文献需要不超过5个IM。如果文献需要,标引员可以使用5个以上IM

 

NIM TermsNIM

NIM terms are concepts that are discussed but are not the main point of the article. Some common concepts which are frequently NIM are: NIM词为文献讨论的概念但并非主要论点,一些一般性概念通常为NIM

·         Techniques/research methods (MICROSCOPY, ELECTRON) 技术/研究方法(显微镜, 电子)

·         Animals studied experimentally (RATS) 实验研究动物(大鼠)

·         Terms that further specify an IM term (CHRONIC DISEASE) 对IM词进一步限定的术语(慢性病)

However, these concepts can be indexed IM if they are the main focus of the article. Remember that the selection of a term as IM or NIM depends on the importance of the concept in the article.但当这些概念是文献主要论述点时可被标引为IM词。谨记选择一个术语作为IM词或NIM词取决于其在文献中的重要性。

It is important to understand, that  terms which are usually used as NIM, can, sometimes, be indexed as IM concepts. For example, an article about chronic gastritis will be indexed with the terms GASTRITIS as IM and CHRONIC DISEASE as NIM. However, an article about chronic disease in general will be indexed with the term CHRONIC DISEASE as an IM concept.理解通常作为NIM词的术语在有些情况下可被标引为IM概念很重要。例如,关于慢性胃炎的文献将胃炎标引为IM,慢性病标引为NIM。但关于慢性疾病的文献,通常将慢性病作为IM概念标引。

The same rationale applies to concepts usually indexed as IM – in some circumstances they will be indexed as NIM.同样原理应用于一般作为IM词标引的概念,在某些情况下,它们作为NIM标引。

Many articles can be adequately indexed with 15 or fewer NIM terms. It is important that an indexer should use as many NIM terms as needed but not add terms simply to reach a number.许多文献通常标引15或少于15个NIM词。标引员可应用足够多的NIM词进行标引,但并非只是凑数,这一点很重要。

Not every concept mentioned in an article is indexed. Concepts should only be indexed if they are discussed and not merely mentioned in an article.不是文献中提到的每个概念都要标引,只标引文献中讨论过的概念,而不仅仅是提到的概念。

 

Depth & Non-Depth Indexing深度标引和非深度标引Depth & Non-Depth Indexing深度标引和非深度标引

Depth indexing means that the article is indexed in detail, covering ALL main points and significant minor points.深度标引指对文献进行详细标引,覆盖所有的主要论点及重要的次要论点。

Non-Depth indexing means that the article is indexed with less detail and less specificity. In general, letters, news items, editorials, and reviews are indexed non-depth.非深度标引(Non-Depth indexing)指对文献进行非详细且非专指的标引。一般地,对书信、新闻、社论及综述文献进行非深度标引。

Every article is indexed completely, whether Depth or Non-Depth, the only difference is the degree of detail and specificity. 无论是深度标引还是非深度标引,每篇文献均需要全面的标引,唯一区别是标引的详细程度及专指性。

 

(待续)



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