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分子遗传学阅读文献:基因表达调控之二

已有 7988 次阅读 2008-9-3 13:13 |个人分类:科学感想|系统分类:科研笔记| 基因, 分子遗传学阅读文献, 表达调控

Functions of microRNAs and the related small RNAs in plants

 

Mallory AC, Vaucheret H. Functions of microRNAs and related small RNAs in plants. Nat Genet. 2006 Jun;38 Suppl: S31-6.

 

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), 20- to 27-nt in length, are essential regulatory molecules that act as sequence-specific guides in several processes in most eukaryotes (with the notable exception of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae). These processes include DNA elimination, heterochromatin assembly, mRNA cleavage and translational repression. This review focuses on the regulatory roles of plant miRNAs during development, in the adaptive response to stresses and in the miRNA pathway itself. This review also covers the regulatory roles of two classes of endogenous plant siRNAs, ta-siRNAs and nat-siRNAs, which participate in post-transcriptional control of gene expression.

Functions of microRNAs and the related small RNAs in plants

 

microRNA regulation of gene expression in plants

 

Dugas DV, Bartel B. MicroRNA regulation of gene expression in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2004 Oct; 7 (5): 512-20.

 

It has only been a few years since we began to appreciate that microRNAs provide an unanticipated level of gene regulation in both plants and metazoans. The high level of complementarity between plant microRNAs and their target mRNAs has allowed rapid progress towards the elucidation of their varied biological functions. MicroRNAs have been shown to regulate diverse developmental processes, including organ separation, polarity, and identity, and to modulate their own biogenesis and function. Recently, they have also been implicated in some processes outside of plant development.

 microRNA regulation of gene expression in plants

 

The evolution of gene regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs

 

Chen K, Rajewsky N. The evolution of gene regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs. Nat Rev Genet. 2007 Feb; 8 (2): 93-103.

 

Changes in the patterns of gene expression are widely believed to underlie many of the phenotypic differences within and between species. Although much emphasis has been placed on changes in transcriptional regulation, gene expression is regulated at many levels, all of which must ultimately be studied together to obtain a complete picture of the evolution of gene expression. Here we compare the evolution of transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation that is mediated by microRNAs, a large class of small, non-coding RNAs in plants and animals, focusing on the evolution of the individual regulators and their binding sites. As an initial step towards integrating these mechanisms into a unified framework, we propose a simple model that describes the transcriptional regulation of new microRNA genes.

 The evolution of gene regulation by transcription factors and microRNAs

Mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs: are the answer in sight?

 

Filipowicz W, Bhattacharyya SN, Sonenberg N. Mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs: are the answers in sight? Nat Rev Genet. 2008 Feb; 9 (2): 102-14.

 

MicroRNAs constitute a large family of small, approximately 21-nucleotide-long, non-coding RNAs that have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in metazoans and plants. In mammals, microRNAs are predicted to control the activity of approximately 30% of all protein-coding genes, and have been shown to participate in the regulation of almost every cellular process investigated so far. By base pairing to mRNAs, microRNAs mediate translational repression or mRNA degradation. This Review summarizes the current understanding of the mechanistic aspects of microRNA-induced repression of translation and discusses some of the controversies regarding different modes of microRNA function.

 

Mechanisms of post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs

 

 

MicroRNAs: something important between the genes

 

Mallory AC, Vaucheret H. MicroRNAs: something important between the genes. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2004 Apr; 7 (2): 120-5.

 

Non-coding small endogenous RNAs, of 21-24 nucleotides in length, have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression in both plants and animals. At least three categories of small RNAs exist in plants: short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) deriving from viruses or transgenes and mediating virus resistance or transgene silencing via RNA degradation; siRNAs deriving from transposons or transgene promoters and controlling transposon and transgene silencing probably via chromatin changes; and microRNAs (miRNAs) deriving from intergenic regions of the genome and regulating the expression of endogenous genes either by mRNA cleavage or translational repression. The disruption of miRNA-mediated regulation causes developmental abnormalities in plants, demonstrating that miRNAs play an important role in the regulation of developmental decisions.

 

MicroRNAs-something important between the genes

 

MicroRNA biogenesis: coordinated cropping and dicing

 

Kim VN. MicroRNA biogenesis: coordinated cropping and dicing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2005 May; 6 (5): 376-85.

 

The recent discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) took many by surprise because of their unorthodox features and widespread functions. These tiny, approximately 22-nucleotide, RNAs control several pathways including developmental timing, haematopoiesis, organogenesis, apoptosis, cell proliferation and possibly even tumorigenesis. Among the most pressing questions regarding this unusual class of regulatory miRNA-encoding genes is how miRNAs are produced in cells and how the genes themselves are controlled by various regulatory networks.

 MicroRNA biogenesis-coordinated cropping and dicing

 

Prediction of plant microRNA targets

 

Rhoades MW, Reinhart BJ, Lim LP, Burge CB, Bartel B, Bartel DP. Prediction of plant microRNA targets. Cell. 2002 Aug 23;110(4):513-20.

 

We predict regulatory targets for 14 Arabidopsis microRNAs (miRNAs) by identifying mRNAs with near complementarity. Complementary sites within predicted targets are conserved in rice. Of the 49 predicted targets, 34 are members of transcription factor gene families involved in developmental patterning or cell differentiation. The near-perfect complementarity between plant miRNAs and their targets suggests that many plant miRNAs act similarly to small interfering RNAs and direct mRNA cleavage. The targeting of developmental transcription factors suggests that many plant miRNAs function during cellular differentiation to clear key regulatory transcripts from daughter cell lineages.

 Prediction of plant microRNA targets

 

Developmental role of microRNA in plants

 

Kidner CA, Martienssen RA. The developmental role of microRNA in plants. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2005 Feb; 8 (1): 38-44.

 

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNA molecules of around 22 nucleotides (nt) in length that are associated with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). They play an important role in plant development, either by targeting mRNA for cleavage or by inhibiting translation. Over the past year, the list of known miRNAs, confirmed targets and developmental effects has expanded, as has the realization that they are conserved during evolution and that small RNAs can play a direct role in cell-cell signaling.

 Developmental role of microRNA in plants

 

Encountering microRNAs in cell fate signalling

 

Karp X, Ambros V. Developmental biology. Encountering microRNAs in cell fate signaling. Science. 2005 Nov 25; 310 (5752): 1288-9.

 

Encountering microRNAs in cell fate signalling



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