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科技写作(102):使用主动语态 精选

已有 7728 次阅读 2013-1-18 22:05 |个人分类:科技写作|系统分类:论文交流| office, style, xml, exactly

        过多运用被动语态会使文章变得乏味且笨拙,如:No change in activity was observed. 如果改用主动语态句子会生动、有趣得多:We observed no change in activity.

        但是也不能完全拒绝被动语态。在不需要读者了解行为的执行者为何许人时,可使用被动语态。在被强调的是某个特定论题,或者需要考虑单词的位置时,也可使用被动语态。如:Viral DNA was isolated 24 hours after inoculation.

        还有一些情况适合使用被动语态:主语特别长,使用被动语态可以使主语缩短,并且使观点更加前后一致(比如,在一段话中连续使用同一个主语),或者可以使你达到强调重点的目的。

D 1

Volcanic pipes are subterranean geological structures formed by the violent, supersonic eruption of deep-origin volcanoes. Volcanic pipes are composed of a deep, narrow cone (described as “carrot-shaped”). Solidified magma usually fills the cone. Volcanic pipes are made up of kimberlite or lamproite rock and are well known as the primary source of diamonds.

C 修改后的例1

Volcanic pipes are subterranean geological structures formed by the violent, supersonic eruption of deep-origin volcanoes. Volcanic pipes are composed of a deep, narrow cone (described as “carrot-shaped”). The cone is usually filled with solidified magma. Volcanic pipes are made up of kimberlite or lamproite rock and are well known as the primary source of diamonds.

        从修改后的例句可以看出,使用被动语态达到了强调“cone”的目的,而不是展现新的信息。修改时也考虑了单词的位置。

 

 

练习:将下列各句改写为主动语态。

1.       The following results were obtained:....

2.       Isolated tissues were examined for parasites.

3.       The collected specimens and videotape recorded during 25 dives were analyzed by the team.

4.       Recovery of several cytosine deaminases occurred after 2 days.

5.       Insight into the dynamics of the excitation process can be obtained from two–pulse correlation measurements.

6.       Phosphorylation is stimulated by the addition of KA-1 to the reaction.

7.       Preliminary findings were unveiled by expedition members.

8.       The same dosage of antitumor drugs was administered to patients for 60 days.

9.       The emerging field of spintronics was launched by the advent of giant magnetoresistance (GMR).

10.   Another way of treating the translational cooling is provided by the principle of detailed balance.

11.   Computational studies and searches in the CSD (Fig.S1) and the PDB were carried out to investigate the conformational preferences of the aromatic OCH3, OCH2F, OCHF2, and OCF3 groups.

 

参考答案

1. We obtained the following results: ...

2. We examined the isolated tissues for parasites.

3. The team analyzed the collected specimens and videotape recorded during 25 dives.

4. We recovered several cytosine deaminases after 2 days.

5. Two-pulse correlation measurements provide insight into the dynamics of the excitation process.

6. The addition of KA-1 to the reaction stimulated phosphorylation.

7. Expedition members unveiled their preliminary findings.

8. We administered the same dosage of antitumor drugs to patients for 60 days. OR Patients received the same dosage...

9. The advent of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) helped launch the emerging field of spintronics.

10. The principle of detailed balance provides another way of treating the translational cooling.

11. We carried out computational studies and searches in the CSD (Fig. S1) and the PDB to investigate the conformational preferences of the aromatic OCH3, OCH2F, OCHF2, and OCF3 groups.

 

摘编自《科技写作与交流》(任胜利 . 科学出版社, 2012年出版)



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