Anna999的个人博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Anna999

博文

英语语法要领通识-8-句法(8.4-名词性从句)重新发布

已有 1013 次阅读 2020-1-8 11:55 |系统分类:教学心得


8.5-名词性从句

Contents

1)主语从句... 2

1)从属连词引导主语从句... 2

2)连接代词引导主语从句... 3

3)连接副词引导主语从句... 4

2)宾语从句... 4

1)从属连词引导宾语从句... 5

2)连接代词引导宾语从句... 6

3)连接副词引导宾语从句... 6

4)直接引语变间接引语... 7

4-1)直接引语为陈述句... 10

4-1-1)人称代词的变化... 10

4-1-2)指示代词与地点状语的变化... 12

4-1-3)时态的变化... 12

4-1-4)时间状语的变化... 16

4-2)直接引语为疑问句... 17

4-2-1)直接引语为一般疑问句... 17

4-2-2)直接引语为特殊疑问句... 18

4-2-3)直接引语为选择疑问句... 18

4-2-4)直接引语为附加疑问句... 19

4-3)直接引语为祈使句... 19

4-4)直接引语为感叹句... 20

4-5)直接引语为虚拟句... 20

3)表语从句... 21

1)从属连词引导表语从句... 21

2)连接代词引导表语从句... 22

3)连接副词引导表语从句... 23

4)同位语从句... 23

5)同位语从句与定语从句的区别... 24

6)补语从句... 25

 

 

名词性从句是指在主从复合句中的句法功用相当于作为主句的名词成份的从句,包括主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句和补语从句。名词性从句的引导词包括三大类:从属连词、连接代词与连接副词。从属连词包括that, because, whether, if 等,在从句中不充当任何成份,只起引导从句的作用,其中that除了不作任何句子成份之外,且无任何词意;连接代词包括who, whom, whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever等,在从句中既作特定成份,又有一定词意(大多表疑问);连接副词包括when, whenever, where, wherever, why, how等,既作从句的副词成份,又引导从句。

1)主语从句

主语从句是指在主从复合句中用作主句主语的从句。由于主语从句往往较长,为避免主从复合句头重脚轻,常用it作形式主语,置于句首,而将作为真实主语的主语从句置于句尾。

1)从属连词引导主语从句

当主语从句位于句首时,作为引导词的从属连词that不可省,当主语从句位于句尾时引导词that可省。如:

a) That you are a good person now doesn’t mean you’ll be always a good one. Once anyone does a bad thing, he will become a bad man. 你现在是个好人并不意味着你永远是好人。任何人一旦干坏事就会变成坏人。

b) It is necessary (that) we should do anything in the right attitude and means. 我们做任何事均须以正确的态度与方法。

c) It is quite clear that the whole conspiracy to commit the crime against humanity is doomed to failure. 显然,整个反人类的阴谋注定失败。

从属连词whetherif引导主语从句的区别在于,if不能置于句首。如:

d) Whether it rains or shines doesn’t matter. 无论阴晴都无关紧要。

e) It depends upon your intelligence and diligence more than luck whether/if you can succeed in making your dream come true.能否实现你的梦想更多的是取决于你的智力与勤奋,而不是运气。

2)连接代词引导主语从句

连接代词引导主语从句时,who在从句中可作主语、表语,在一定的限制条件下也可作从句中动词的宾语,但不可作介词的宾语;whom在从句中可作表语以及动词或介词的宾语;whose表“谁的”,可作从句中的定语;whoever表“无论是谁”;what可指代“事物、情况”;whatever可指代“无论…事物或情况”;which表“哪个、那个、这个”。如:

a) Whoever loves money never has money enough. 爱财者总是贪得无厌。

b) What is worth doing at all is worth doing well. 凡是值得做的事都值得做好。

3)连接副词引导主语从句

连接副词引导的主语从句:when-表时间,why-表原因,where-表地点,how-表方式或程度。如:

a) How you think affects your approach to the success journey. 你的思维方式影响你走向成功的历程。

b) How one masters his life is more important than how his life is. 一个人如何把握生活比其生活何如更重要。

c) It is home where we can feel safe and happy. 家是我们的安全幸福之所在。

d) Has it been told to you when the new teacher will give a class to us? 新老师什么时候来给我们上课,已经告诉你了吗?

e) Why he became rich overnight is still a puzzle. 他为什么会一夜暴富仍是个谜。

2)宾语从句

宾语从句是指整个从句用作主从复合句的主句中谓语动词或介词的宾语。直接引语和间接引语均为主句谓语动词的宾语从句,只不过直接引语是加引号的宾语从句而已。

1)从属连词引导宾语从句

用作动词的宾语从句可由从属连词that引导,并可省。如:

a) I slept and dreamt (that) life was of beauty; I woke and found (that) life was of duty. 我入梦拥有生活的美好;我醒来感到生活的职责。(连词that引导的从句作动词的宾语,可省)

从属连词whether, if可引导动词的宾语从句,如:

b) When you are tempted to do something wicked and harmful to others in secret, ask yourself whether/if you have a bit of conscience on earth. 当你受到诱惑去偷偷摸摸干某种伤害他人的卑劣勾当时要问问你自己,你究竟还有没有一点儿良知了。(whether/if-从句均可作动词的宾语)

作介词的宾语从句时,不可用从属连词that, if引导,可用从属连词whether代之引导。如:

c) They can't agree on whether what they are doing will be meaningful in the long run. 他们在关于所做的事从长远来看是否有意义方面没能达成共识。(在此用作介词on的宾语从句表“是否”可用whether-从句而不可用if-从句)

2)连接代词引导宾语从句

  用作动词的宾语从句可由连接代词what, whatever, which等引导,如:

a) The magic code of life is not to do what one likes but to try to like what one has to do. 生活的秘诀并不在于一个人去干喜欢干的事,而是在于尽力去喜欢所该干的事。

b) We should plan ahead and will pay whatever price is required. 我们应该提前作规划,并愿付出任何所需代价。

c) By straws sway one can see which direction the wind blows toward. 草动知风向。

用作介词的宾语从句,不可用连接代词which引导,而要用连接代词what引导,whatever也可引导介词的宾语从句。如:

d) The true value of life is not in what we get, but in what we give. 真正的人生价值不在于我们所得到的,而在于我们所付出的。(连接代词引导的what-从句用作介词in的宾语)

3)连接副词引导宾语从句

 由连接副词how, where, why等可引导宾语从句,如:

a) Our life philosophy decides how we see the world. 我们的人生理念决定我们看世界的方式。(连接副词引导的how-从句用作动词decides的宾语)

b) Your past experiences brought you to where you are today. 过去的经历引领你走到了今天。(连接副词引导的where-从句用作介词to的宾语)

c) He was satisfied at how efficient the airline had been. 他对这条航线的高效率感到很满意。(连接副词引导的how-从句用作介词at的宾语)

4)直接引语变间接引语

直接引语和间接引语实际上都是宾语从句。加引号的引述原话叫作直接引语(direct speech),不加引号对原话的转述叫作间接引语(indirect speech)。这两种引语均须由引述动词(reporting verb)引述,常见的引述动词有say, tell, ask, declare, remark, reply, explain, warn, 等。

直接引语除了须加引号外,其句首词的首字母还须大写,并且主句的主语及引述动词可置于直接引语之前、之后或之中。无论直接引语位置如何,间接引语通常均可置于主句的主语和谓语动词之后。如:

a) I warned sternly to him, “It's not me but natural laws to be really powerful. If what I said is a truth, I needn’t painstakingly round the truth at all because it must be a natural round itself impeccably in logic; if what you said is a lie or what you made is a feigned case, the fake must be always a flawed one full of loopholes in logic, and you can never round it perfectly even though you could mobilize so many persons as thousands of troops and painstakingly do it by all possible means. 我正告他说,“不是我厉害,而是自然法则厉害。如果我说的是真的,我根本就不必刻意去圆,那真的必定在逻辑上就是一个无懈可击的自然圆;如果你说的是谎言或者造的是假象,那假的就必定在逻辑上永远是漏洞百出的残缺状,即使你能调动千军万马刻意用尽千方百计也圆不了。”(主句的主语+引述动词+直接引语

b) I warned sternly to him that it's not me but natural laws to be really powerful; if what I said is a truth, I needn’t painstakingly round the truth at all because it must be a natural round itself impeccably in logic; if what he said is a lie or what he made is a feigned case, the fake must be always a flawed one full of loopholes in logic; he can never round it perfectly even though he could mobilize so many persons as thousands of troops and painstakingly do it by all possible means. 我正告他说,不是我厉害,而是自然法则厉害;如果我说的是真的,我根本就不必刻意去圆,那真的必定在逻辑上就是一个无懈可击的自然圆;如果他说的是谎言或者造的是假象,那假的就必定在逻辑上永远是漏洞百出的残缺状,即使他能调动千军万马刻意用尽千方百计也圆不了。(主句的主语+引述动词+间接引语

c)   He said, “I am playing basketball.” 他说:“我正在打篮球。”(主句的主语+引述动词+直接引语

d)   He said that he was playing basketball. 他说他正在打篮球。(主句的主语+引述动词+间接引语

e)   “Thank you very much!” said he. “非常感谢!”他说。(直接引语+引述动词+主句的主语)

f)   He said that he was very thankful to you. 他说他非常感谢你。(主句的主语+引述动词+间接引语

g) “I have no time to go there with you,” he explained, “I have to give a class at 8 o’clock every morning.” “我没时间和你去那儿”,他解释说,“每早8点我都得上课。”(主句的主语及引述动词置于直接引语之间)

h) He explained that he has no time to go there with me for he has to give a class at 8 o’clock every morning. 他解释说,他没时间和我去那儿,因为他每早8点都得上课。(主句的主语+引述动词+间接引语

由上述例句可知,直接引语变为间接引语时,一般情况下,句子结构、人称、时态、时间及地点状语等成份均须随之变化。通常,不同种类的英语句子结构须遵从不同的变化规则。以下将按不同的句子结构分别讨论直接引语变为间接引语的句法规则。

4-1)直接引语为陈述句

作为陈述句的直接引语变为间接引语时,常由从属连词that(口语中可省)引导,引述动词常用say, tell, answer, reply, repeat, explain等。同时,根据句意的要求,直接引语变间接引语时须在人称、时态及其它方面作相应的变化。

4-1-1)人称代词的变化

直接引语变间接引语时所作人称代词变化的一般规则是:直接引语中的第一人称变为间接引语中的第三人称,直接引语中的第二人称变为间接引语中的第一人称。

直接引语变间接引语时人称代词变化的一般规则

直接引语

间接引语

I

he / she

me

him/her

my

his/ her

mine

his/hers

us

them

our

their

ours

theirs

you

me/us

your

my/our

yours

mine/ours

 

但这种规则并不是绝对的,直接引语变为间接引语的最根本的规则是:人称代词应该随语意表述的改变而作相应的变更。如:

a) MartinLutherKing told the world, “I have a dream." 马丁 路德金告诉世界:“有一个梦想。”

b) MartinLutherKing told the world that he had a dream. 马丁路德金告诉世界说,有一个梦想。

c) Byron said, “I love wisdom more than she loves me.” 拜伦说:“爱智慧胜过智慧爱。”

d) Byron said that he loved wisdom more than she loved him. 拜伦说,爱智慧胜过智慧爱

e) You can say to yourself, “I lived through this horror. I can stand the next anything that comes along.” 你可以对自己说:“经历了如此的恐怖,可以承受接下来的一切。”

f) You can say to yourself that you lived through this horror and you can stand the next anything that comes along. 你可以对自己说,经历了如此的恐怖,可以承受接下来的一切。

g) The teacher said to me, “you must bring your books with you to the class.” 老师对我说:“必须带着你的书来上课。”

h) The teacher told me that I must bring my books with me to the class. 老师告诉必须带着我的书去上课。

i) Einstein said, “I never consider ease and joyfulness as the purpose of life itself.” 爱因斯坦说:“不不认为安逸与欢乐是人生的本来目的。

j) Einstein said that he never consider ease and joyfulness as the purpose of life itself. 爱因斯坦说,从不认为安逸与欢乐是人生的本来目的。

4-1-2)指示代词与地点状语的变化

通常,直接引语变间接引语时,指示代词和地点状语均须随之变化:thisthatthesethoseherethere;等。但不一定一律变,关键是要随语意而变。如:

k) He said, “I like this book.” 他说:“喜欢这本书。”

l) He said that he liked this book. 他说喜欢这本书。(书在近处或直接与间接引述时在同一处)

m) He said that he liked that book. 他说喜欢那本书。他说他喜欢那本书。(书在远处或直接与间接引述时不在同一处)

4-1-3)时态的变化

若引出直接引语的主句谓语动词(即引述动词)是现在时或将来时,则通常在直接引语变为间接引语时,其谓语动词的时态不变。如:

n) Poets say, “Everyone can be the architect of his own happiness.” 诗人们说:“每个人都可以成为自己幸福的建筑师。”

o) Poets say that everyone can be the architect of his own happiness. 诗人们说,每个人都可以成为自己幸福的建筑师。

若直接引语的引述动词是过去时,直接引语变为间接引语时,其谓语动词时态的一般变化规则通常是:

直接引语

间接引语

一般现在时

一般过去时

现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

一般过去时

过去完成时

过去进行时

过去完成进行时

过去完成时

过去完成时

一般将来时

过去将来时

将来进行时

过去将来进行时

将来完成时

过去将来完成时

但若直接引语表达的是事实、规律或真理,则其变为间接引语时谓语动词保持一般现在时。如:

p) The ancient Chinese proverb said, “A journey of a thousand miles begins with one step.” 中国古谚语有道是:“千里之行,始于足下。”

q) The ancient Chinese proverb said that a journey of a thousand miles begins with one step. 中国古谚语有道是,千里之行,始于足下。

r) Napoleon said,I succeeded because 1 willed it; I never hesitated.” 拿破仑说:“我成功是因为我渴望成功,我从未犹豫过。”(此处willed是古语动词will的过去式或过去分词,不是情态助动词)

s) Napoleon said that he had succeeded because he had willed it and he had never hesitated. 拿破仑说,他成功是因为他渴望成功,他从未犹豫过。

t) He said,You haven't changed much.” 他说:“你变化不大。”

u) He said that I hadn't changed much. 他说我变化不大。

v) She said,He is waiting for you.” 她说:“他正等着你呢。”

w) She said he was waiting for me. 她说他正等着我呢。

x) She said, “He has been waiting for you.” 她说:“他一直在等着你。”

y) She said he had been waiting for me. 她说他一直在等着我。

  z) He said, “He came at 6 o’clock.” 他说:“他是6点来的。”

A) He said that he had come at 6 o’clock. 他说他是6点来的。

B) He said, “It was raining at the moment yesterday evening.” 他说:“昨晚此刻正在下雨。”

C) He said that it had been raining at the moment in the evening the day before. 他说那/一天晚上的此刻正在下雨。 (间接引语的引述时间与直接引语不在同一天)

在不引起误会的前提下,直接引语中的一般过去时和过去进行时在间接引语中可以不变。直接引语中的过去完成时或过去完成进行时也可以不变。如:

D) He said that it was raining at the moment yesterday evening. 他说昨天晚上此刻正在下雨。 (间接引语的引述时间与直接引语均在同一天即下雨的第二天,时间状语不变,间接引语中谓语动词的过去进行时也不变)

E)   She said, “He will come late.” 她说:“他要迟到了。”

F)   She said he would come late. 她说他要迟到了。

G)  He said, “I shall have finished reading the book by the end of this week.” 他说:“我在本周末前会看完这本书的。”

H)  He said that he would have finished reading the book by the end of that week. 他说他在那个周末前会看完那本书的。

I)    He said, “I'll be seeing you off on the 10 o'clock train.” 他说:“我要送你乘坐10点钟的火车。”

J)   He said that he would be seeing me off on the 10 o'clock train. 他说他要送我乘坐10点钟的火车。

K)  She said, “He can swim very well.” 她说:“他会游泳,而且游得很好。”

L) She said that he can swim very well. 她说他会游泳,而且游得很好。(引述事实,一般现在时不变)

注意,直接引语为一般现在时,通常间接引语改用一般过去时。上例中的直接与间接引语均用can是因为直接引语是事实;若直接引语不是引述事实或真理,则变为间接引语时须改用过去式could。如:

M) She said, “I’m very happy you can help me.” 她说:“我非常高兴你能帮我。”

N) She said that she was very happy I could help her. 她说她非常高兴我能帮她。

  另外,有些情态助动词如 must, ought to, need, had better等只有一种形式,在变为间接引语时其形式也不变。如:

O) I advised them, “You’d better stop making disorders as I suggested.” 我劝告他们:“你们最好还是按我的建议不要制造混乱。”

P) I advised them that they’d better stop making disorders as I suggested. 我劝告他们说,他们最好还是按我的建议不要制造混乱。

4-1-4)时间状语的变化

直接引语常用时间状语有:

ago以前;now现在;today今天;tonight今晚;

yesterday昨天;tomorrow明天;

the day before yesterday前天;

the day after tomorrow后天;last week上周;

the previous week / the week before 一周前;

next week下周;等。

间接引语常用时间状语有:

before以前;then当时/那时;that day那天;

that night那天晚上;the previous day前一天;

the next day / following day第二天;

two days before 两天前;in two days' time两天后;

the next week / following week一周后;

通常,直接引语变间接引语时,时间状语的变化有:

nowthenagobeforetodaythat day

tomorrowthe next day / the following day

yesterdaythe day before / the previous day

the day before yesterdaytwo days before

the day after tomorrowtwo days later;等。如:

Q) He said, “I saw her yesterday.” 他说:“我昨天见过她。”

R) He said that he saw her yesterday. 他说他昨天见过她。(若直接引语和间接引语的主句引述动词的动作said在同一天发生,时间状语yesterday不变,从句谓语动词的时态如saw也随之不变)

S)   He said that he had seen her the day before. 他说他/一天见过地。(若间接引语主句的引述动词的动作said发生在直接引语主句的引述动词的动作所在日期的随后一天,则“yesterday昨天”须变为“the day before/一天”,同时从句的谓语动词须用过去完成时态had seen

4-2)直接引语为疑问句

直接引语为疑问句,变为间接引语时,关联词用whether, if或其它疑问词,词序与一般从句相同,be, have等助动词须置于主语之后,引述动词常用say, ask, wonder, inquire等。

直接引语为疑问句而变为间接引语时所应作的谓语动词时态、人称代词、时间状语、地点状语等变化均须遵循上述直接引语是陈述句时的变化规则,并且除了须保留特殊疑问句的疑问词之外其余部分均须改用陈述句语序,最后还应将句尾的问号改为句号。

4-2-1)直接引语为一般疑问句

直接引语是一般疑问句,变为间接引语时应由whetherif引导。如:

a) Benjamin Franklin asked us, “Do you love life?本杰明富兰克林问我们:“你们热爱生活吗?

b) Benjamin Franklin asked us whether/if we loved life. 本杰明富兰克林问我们是否热爱生活。

c) People often ask, “Is there any secret of success?” 人们常问:“成功有秘诀吗?”

d) People often ask whether/if there is any secret of success.人们常问成功是否有秘诀。

4-2-2)直接引语为特殊疑问句

直接引语是特殊疑问句,变间接引语时,要用原有的疑问词引出间接引语。如:

e) Ask yourself, “What is the most important thing that I can do this life? ” 要问自己:“今生我能做的最重要的事是什么?”

f) Ask yourself what is the most important thing that you can do this life. 要问自己,今生你能做的最重要的事是什么。

4-2-3)直接引语为选择疑问句

直接引语是选择疑问句时,要用whether…or…引出间接引语。如:

g) Ask yourself, “Am I a good man or a bad one, a kind man or an evil one and an honest man or a dishonest one?” 要问自己:“我是个好人还是坏人,是个善人还是恶人,是个老实人还是不老实的人?”

h) Ask yourself whether you are a good man or a bad one, a kind man or an evil one and an honest man or a dishonest one. 要问自己,你是个好人还是坏人,是个善人还是恶人,是个老实人还是不老实的人。

4-2-4)直接引语为附加疑问句

附加疑问句的直接引语,要用whetherif引出间接引语。如:

i) He asked me, “Working is a big part of your life, isn't it?他问我:“工作就是你生活的一个重要组成部分,不是吗?”

j) He asked me whether/if working was a big part of my life.

他问我,工作是否是我生活的一个重要组成部分。

4-3)直接引语为祈使句

直接引语是祈使句,变为间接引语时多用不定式结构。引述动词常用ask, tell, say, order等。如:

a) Gandhi said,Let us learn to treasure only the good and reject the evil in everything.” 甘地说:“让我们学会珍惜一切事物中的善,而排斥一切事物中的恶。”

b) Gandhi suggested that we should learn to treasure only the good and reject the evil in everything. 甘地建议,我们要学会珍惜一切事物中的善,而排斥一切事物的中的恶。

4-4)直接引语为感叹句

直接引语为感叹句,变间接引语时可由感叹词whathow引出间接引语,也可去掉whathow,改用that引导间接引语,感叹句尾的感叹号要变为句号,引述动词可用say, exclaim,等。如:

a) Someone exclaimed, “Good heavens! ” 有人惊呼道:“天啊!”

b) Someone exclaimed that good heavens. 有人惊呼道,天啊。

c) She said, “What a lovely day!” 她说:“真是个好天气!”

d) She said what a lovely day it was. / She said that it was a lovely day. 她说天气真好。

4-5)直接引语为虚拟句

直接引语为虚拟句,变间接引语时,其谓语动词的时态可保持不变。如:

a) She said, “If trouble had worried me, I might have been dead long since.” 她说:“假如烦扰让我忧心忡忡,我也许早就死了。”

b) She said that if trouble had worried her, she might have been dead long since. 她说,假如烦扰让她忧心忡忡,她也许早就死了。

c) “If you were here, you would surely have voted for the motion,” she said. “假如你当时在这里,你一定会投票赞成这项提议。”她说。

d)   She said that if I were there, I would surely have voted for the motion. 她说假如我当时在那里,我一定会投票赞成那项提议。

3)表语从句

表语从句在主从复合句中用作主句的表语。

1)从属连词引导表语从句

可引导表语从句的从属连词常见有that, whether, because, as if, as though,连接代词what, who, which, whom, whose, whatever, whoever,连接副词when, where, why, how等。在非正式文体中,引导表语从句的that可省。如:

a) The only certainty is (that) nothing is certain. 唯一的确定性就是无可确定。

b) The fact is (that) life is either hard and satisfying or easy and unsatisfying. 事实是,生活要么艰苦而令人满意,要么轻松而令人不满。

c) That he has lung cancer is because he has been smoking too much. 他患有肺癌是因为他一直抽烟太多。

2)连接代词引导表语从句

a) The future is never what it used to be. 未来绝不会再现过去。

b) Purpose is what gives life a meaning. 目标就是赋予生活意义的东西。

c) Need and struggle are what excite and inspire us. 需求与奋斗令我们兴奋,并激励着我们。

d) Actually, women should without any resistance become whatever they want to do just like men, whether it is a job as a pilot, an astronaut or a leader. 实际上,女人应该与男人一样想成为干什么工作的人都不成问题,无论是飞行员,宇航员还是领导人。

what引导表语从句的一种特殊形式A to B is (just) what is C to D,所表基本语意是“A对于B正如C对于D的意义/作用/关系”,常见用于以众所周知的道理对现实情况进行推理类比,以突出表达说服力。如:

e) Personality to man is just what is perfume to a flower人格对于人,正如花香对于花(的意义)。

f) The intellect to the mind is just what is the sight to the body智力对于头脑正如视力对于身体(的作用)。

这种what-表语从句也可置于主句之前,并用逗号隔开。如:

g) What is sculpture to a block of marble, the effect of education to soul is. 教育对于心灵正如雕塑对于大理石的作用效果。

h) What is hunger to food, zest in relation to life is. 兴致对于生活正如饥饿对于食物之关系。

3)连接副词引导表语从句

a) Your big opportunity may be right where you are now. 硕大的机会或许就在你眼前。

b) Success is how high you bounce when you hit the valley bottom. 成功是当你撞到谷底时反弹腾跃的高度。

c) Yesterday is history. Tomorrow is a mystery. Today is a gift — that's why “now” and “gift” can be all referred to as “present”. 昨天是历史,明天是迷团,今天是礼物。这就是为什么“现在”与“礼物”均可被称为“present”的原因。

4)同位语从句

同位语从句就是在主从复合句中用作主句中某名词性成份的并列解释性从句,对之前并列的名词作进一步的解释说明。同位语从句的引导词常见有that, whether等。后接同位语从句的名词表概括性意义,多数是抽象名词,常见有:assumption假定,belief信仰,conviction确信,doubt 怀疑,evidence证据,explanation解释,fact事实,feeling感觉,guarantee担保,idea想法,knowledge知识,likelihood可能性,message信息,news消息,notion概念,opinion观点,probability可能性,problem 问题,proof 证据,proposal 建议,proverb格言,question问题,sign 迹象,suggestion建议,thought思考/思想,truth真理/事实/真相。如:

a) I have no idea whether one day the rough place will be made plain. 我不知道是否有一天崎岖之处会变得平坦。(whether可引导同位语从句,不可用if代替)

b) Let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself, 让我来声明自己坚定的信念:我们唯一需要恐惧的就是恐惧本身。(同位语从句,修饰名词belief,表涵义内容)

c) There is no likelihood that it will happen. 没有发生这种事的可能性。(同位语从句,修饰likelihood,表涵义内容)

d) I told the lawyer that he is of French origin, the man is now an American citizen. 我告诉律师说,那位男子原本是法国人,但他现在是美国公民。(同位语从句置于其所修饰的名词the man之前,表详细内容)

e) The presentative feeling came to him that he should immediately leave there. 一阵直觉袭来,他应该立刻离开那里。(同位语从句置于主句末尾,其所修饰的名词性词组是the presentative feeling,表详细内容)

f) Madame Curie is an idol in my heart who became the first woman to win the Nobel Prize for her outstanding achievement in the physical sciences in 1903 and 8 years later won her second Nobel Prize in the field of chemistry. 居里夫人是我心中的偶像,1903年她以物理学杰出成果成为了第一名女性诺贝尔奖得主,8年后她又在化学领域第二次获诺贝尔奖。(本应在主句主语后但因避免头重脚轻而置于句末的同位语从句,表详细内容)

5)同位语从句与定语从句的区别

定语从句与同位语从句都是在主从复合句中修饰主句名词的从句,但这两种从句与被修饰名词的关系不同,定语从句相当于形容词,表达被修饰名词(称为先行词)的性质、状态或特征,而同位语从句相当于名词,解释被修饰名词的具体内容。如:

a) Business is a very complex machine, whose components are all people. 事业是一台非常复杂的机器,其所有组成部件都是人。(定语从句,修饰先行词business,表性质特征)

b) The live broadcasters announced the game results that almost let the whole world boil with exciting and cheering. 现场播音员宣布了几乎令整个世界都为之激动欢呼而沸腾的比赛结果。(定语从句,表状态)

c) The probability that we may fail in the struggle ought not enough to deter us from the support of a cause (that) we believe to be just. 我们在奋斗中失败的可能性不足以阻止我们支持我们认为是正义的事业。(前一个that是同位语从句的引导词,此从句说明probability的详细内容;后一个that是引导定语从句的关系代词,在从句中作believe的宾语,可省,先行词是a cause,此从句说明先行词的性质)

6)补语从句

补语从句是位于主句的系表结构之后,对表语进行补充说明其详细语意的从句。用作此类后接补语从句的表语形容词多为表达人的情感态度或思想状态等。如:

a) I am confident that I can deal with any challenge. 我自信能应对一切挑战。

b) We are very pleased that he is admitted to Oxford University. 我们都很高兴,他被牛津大学录取了。

c) I am sure that I will win as long as I am just and in accordance with natural principles for they needn’t live on flattering the power or following the crowd and for they are iron laws that no one can resist. 我确信,只要我是正义的并顺应天理,就一定胜利!因为天理是不食人间烟火的并且是没人能抗拒的铁的规律!

 

 

参考文献

1. 薄冰,何政安. Bo Bing English Grammar薄冰英语语法(袖珍本)北京:开明出版社,2007

2. 张道真,朱从军张道真英语语法长春:吉林出版集团有限公司,2013

3. 胡敏 主编(新航道图书编委会)英语语法红宝书(English Grammar北京:中国出版传媒股份有限公司,中国对外翻译出版有限公司,2011

4. 外研社编辑组现代汉英词典北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1988

5. 朗文当代英汉双解词典香港:朗文出版(远东)有限公司,1988

6. 张其春,蔡文萦简明英汉词典北京:商务印书馆, 1963

7. 吉玲,杨艳梅 汉英双解成语词典北京:商务印书馆, 2005

8. 陈宗余简明英语同义词词典济南:山东教育出版社,1984

9. Frederick T Wood. 余士雄,余前文 . English Prepositional Idioms英语介词习语词典北京知识出版社, 1983

 (待续)

 

 

 




http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3389947-1213338.html

上一篇:[转载]2020年,14个问题影响全球物种
下一篇:英语语法要领通识-9-标点符号

0

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (1 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2020-2-25 12:10

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部