PingFucwu的个人博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/PingFucwu

博文

斯蒂芬·欧文(Stephen Owen)的《唐初诗》(1977)

已有 1100 次阅读 2020-10-13 15:00 |系统分类:科研笔记

作者按:这篇短文是我当年读东亚系时候的作业。原文是英文,中文是谷歌翻译。一篇作业谈不上学术文章。只是上篇文章谈到了《初唐诗》一书,我就整理了一下贴上来,不当之处,敬请批评。观点很肤浅,就是为了应付作业。

                                             斯蒂芬·欧文(Stephen Owen)的“唐初诗(1977)”

傅平

1999级研究生

东亚研究系

20005

 

    在本文中,我将回顾由斯蒂芬·欧文(Stephen Owen)撰写的《唐初诗》一书的主要观点。这些主要观点是宫廷诗,反对诗学对立诗论和唐初重要诗人。将在本报告结束时给出总结和议论。

斯蒂芬·欧文(Stephen Owen)的《唐初诗》(1977年)按时间顺序,系统地研究了唐初的整个诗歌。他解决了以下问题:

    在体粘式格律基础上发展并逐渐成为统一风格的近体诗过程是什么?为什么“老”诗,尤其是七个字符的老诗在高唐和中唐流行,并通过唐初诗人的无数次尝试和重大改革,从宫廷诗演变成固定的风格?唐初诗人,如唐初四杰,以及陈子昂等诗人的历史地位是什么?宫廷诗及其对立诗论有什么特点?

    什么是宫廷诗?宫廷诗宫廷诗歌是指南朝后期,隋朝和唐初的诗歌(第1页)。宫廷诗歌主要有两种风格。一种是模仿民间歌词“乐府”。另一种是“正规应制诗”(Formal Occasional Poem,第5页)。

宫廷诗歌具有以下特征和约定(第5-13页):

    ·宫廷设定的基本的,预先安排的主题和形式

    ·高雅的装饰

    ·创意模仿

    ·表达新颖

    ·固定的结构约定

    ·修辞规则

    ·词汇礼仪

    ·反复出现的优雅用语

    ·每个子类别及其约定

    ·三段形式

    ·平行对偶

    最后两个特征是宫廷诗歌中最重要的技巧。 “三段形式”由三个部分组成,分别是主题,描述性扩增和响应(第234页)。

    通常,诗人会以尽可能优雅的口吻开始他的诗歌。

    然后,他在诗歌中间用两个或多个描述性的对偶来放大主题。在这首诗的结尾,诗人总是将个人反应的信息发送到现场。这些信息可能是机智的称赞,对个人意见的入侵,某些观察,某些机智的想法或情感和情感。整个唐初,宫廷诗占据着主导地位。

    八,九世纪的许多伟大诗人都采用了形式,主题和风格惯例。尽管最清晰的画面反映在武则天皇帝所在朝代的最后一年以及中宗和瑞宗的第二次统治时期,但由于包括诗歌,完整的诗歌系列和轶事在内的更多材料比其他统治时期得以幸存。因此,从708年初到以后的二十年间,宫廷作曲的画面反映了写诗的形式,体裁和子体裁(第234页)。如上所述,撰写宫廷诗的固定方法是使用“三段论”。包括“三段形式”在内的惯例促成了律诗的形成,基本上是将非常普遍的八行诗,一定的音调规则和三段形式结合在一起(第235页)。

    与早期南朝王朝有关的其他忽略了礼仪或避免礼仪的早期诗歌发展成古诗。三段形式被广泛用于律诗和古诗(第236页)。尽管陈子昂等伟大的诗人试图在诗歌中使用不同的结构原理,但大多数其他诗人都不可避免地出于其目的操纵了结构。总之,“三段形式”是唐初诗歌中最重要的部分。另一种技术是对偶,这对于需要即席即兴创作一首诗的朝臣非常有用(如果他有效地掌握一首诗的话)(第238-246页)。从武则天皇帝统治时期和继承者的统治时期,个人对宫廷诗歌的侵入,僵化的礼节守则和早期宫廷诗歌的规范惯例的破坏,可以看出高唐诗歌的某些变化和发展。尽管宫廷诗歌和非正式诗歌仍然占主导地位,但个人诗歌和非正式诗歌的数量有所增加(第224-380页)。唐初有许多朝廷诗人。他们中只有少数幸存下来的诗歌。代表有上官仪(第72页),杜审言(第325页),宋之问(第364页)和沈佺(第334页)。后两位诗人为规范诗歌的完善做出了贡献(第334364页)。宫廷诗的主题涵盖了宫廷生活的许多方面,私人宴会,“关于事物的诗”,离别诗,包括旅行诗在内的诗句,和新歌(第256-324页)。

    什么是反对诗学? (对立诗论)

    作为对宫廷诗的直接反应,反对派诗学对不同的人有不同的定义。不幸的是,它只有缺乏实践的理论。在某种程度上,它是一种“复古”,“回归古代”。它强烈拒绝那些诗歌缺乏直接性和简洁性,政治意义和道德性。简而言之,它反对宫廷诗歌的所有特征(第14页)。因此,“对立诗学”虽然在某些情况下暗含着含义,但并不完全是对古代的回归。反对派诗学的代表性文字理论著作是的《文心调龙》(第15页)和裴子野的《昆虫雕刻随笔》(第16页)。用独特的结构原理和风格作诗的代表诗人是隋文帝(第16页)和他的儿子隋杨帝(第20页),魏征,李百药(第27-41页),王赤(第61-71页)。

    但是,远离宫廷诗歌的伟大文学改革始于661年(第80页)。早期唐初四杰(Early Tang four talents)在离开宫廷时起着非常重要的作用,尽管他们仍然撰写了大量的宫廷诗。他们分别创造了自己的风格。严格说来,杨炯从来没有真正形成自己的风格,也不能被视为宫廷的改革者(第81页),尽管后来人们将其归类为同一个家庭。陈子昂(661-702)被认为是宫廷诗歌的第一个征服者(第153页)。他鼓励直率和简洁,钦佩优雅和“碧新”,拒绝完全柔软,色情和过度的六王朝礼节,并有兴趣恢复汉魏时期的风气。他的诗歌内容丰富,形式笔直。他的诗句充满直率和简洁。他强调了现实的社会,政治和实践意义。因此,他被尊为唐初改革的先驱(第151-223页)。

    总结和议论:

    这本书为我们提供了唐初诗歌的全貌。唐初诗歌的习俗为高唐诗人提供了一套构图技巧和形式。高唐诗人提高了他们的个性和其他结构原则。尽管两个时期之间存在差异,但没有证据表明它们之间存在绝对隔离。相比之下,高唐时期的大多数诗人都继承了唐初的作诗技巧,并为此目的而发展了这些技巧。唐初至高唐时期的诗歌史可以称为从“宫廷”到“大众”的话题过程。在宫廷诗歌通过从南朝到唐初的演变达到诗歌发展的顶峰之后,人们试图发展一种新的风格来表达更广泛的主题和更广泛的子流派。在这里,我将争辩说,除了文学和诗人的发展之外,政治,经济,军事和其他亚洲文化的传入可能对早期唐诗向高级唐诗的转变产生了一些影响。
                                                    Stephen Owen's "The Poetry of the Early T'ang (1977)"

By Ping Fu, 

Graduate 1999

East Asian Studies

May, 2000

 

In this essay, I will review the main viewpoints of the book "The Poetry of the Early Tang" written by Stephen Owen. These main viewpoints are court poetry, its opposition poetics, and important poets of the Early Tang. The summary and the arguments will be given st the end of this report.

Stephen Owen's "The Poetry of the Early T'ang (1977)" chronologically, systematically studied the whole poetry of the Early Tang. He solved the following problems:

What process was that the Regulated Verse, as a Recent Poem, was formulated and gradually became a unified style? Why the "old" poem, especially seven characters old poem, became popular in High Tang and Middle Tang and evolved into fixed style away from court poetry through numerous tries and considerable reforms by the Early Tang poets? What kind of the historical positions have the Early Tang's poets such as the Four Talents of the Early Tang, Chen Tze-ang, Tu shen-yen, Shen Chuan-chi, and Sung Chih-wen? What characteristics are there in Court Poetry and its opposition poetics?

What is Court Poetry? 宫廷诗

Court Poetry is the poetry referred to later Southern Dynasties, Sui, and Early Tang (page 1). Court Poetry mainly has two styles. One is the imitation of folk lyrics, Yuefu. The other is the Formal Occasional Poem (正规应制诗) (page5). Court Poetry has the following characteristics and conventions (page 5-13):

· Basic, prearranged themes and forms set by the court

· Gracious adornments

· Creative imitation

· Novelty of expression

· Fixed structural conventions

· Of rules of rhetoric and decorum

· Lexical decorum

· Recurring elegant terms

· Each sub-genre with its conventions

· Tripartite form

· Parallel couplet

The last two characteristics are the most important techniques in Court Poetry. "Tripartite Form" consists of three parts, respectively topic, descriptive amplification, and response (page 234).

Usually, a poet begins his poem with a gracious statement as possible as he can.

Then he amplifies the theme with two or more descriptive parallel couplets in the middle of the poem. At the end of the poem, the poet always sends the messages of personal reaction to the scene. These messages can be a witty compliment, an intrusion of personal opinion, some observation, some witty idea, or emotion and sentiment. Court Poetry dominated the whole early Tang.

The forms, themes, and stylistic conventions were taken by many great poets of the eighth and ninth centuries. While the clearest picture was reflected from the last year of Empress Wu's region and the second reigns of Chung-Tsung and Jui-Tsung, because more materials including poems, complete poem series, and anecdotes were survived than those of other reigns. So the forms, genres, and sub-genres of writing a court poem were mirrored from the picture of courtly composition from the beginning of the year 708 to the next two decades (page 234). As mentioned above, the fixed technique to compose a court poem is to use the "Tripartite Form"(三段论). The conventions including "Tripartite Form" contributed to the formation of the regulated verse (律诗), Lu shi, basically combing the very common eight-line poem, certain rules of tonal decorum, and the tripartite form (page 235).

Other early poetry that ignored its proprieties or avoided them, associated with the pre-southern Dynasties, developed into "Old Poetry", Gu-Shi(古诗). The tripartite form was widely used in both regulated verse, Lu-shi, and "Old Poetry", Gu-shi (page 236). Although some great poets such as Chen Ziang tried to use different structural principles in poems, most other poets unavoidably manipulated the structure for their purposes. In a word, the "Tripartite Form" is the most essential part of the poetry of Early Tang. The other technique is the parallel couplet that is very useful for courtier who is required impromptu to compose a poem if he masters it effectively (page 238-246). Certain changes and developments to the poetry of the High Tang can be seen from the intrusion of individuality into court poetry and the broken of rigid codes of decorum and normative conventions of earlier court poetry during the period of Empress Wu's reign and her successor's reigns. The amount of personal poetry and informal occasional poetry increased although court poems and formal occasional poems still dominated the period (page 224-380). There are numerous court poets in the Early Tang. Only a few of them survived their poems. The representatives are Shang-Kuanyi (page 72), Tu shen-yen (page 325), Sung Chih-wen (page 364), and Shen Chuan-chi (page 334). The latter two poets contributed to the perfection of the regulated verse (page 334&364 ).The topics of court poetry cover many aspects of the life of the court, private banquet, " poetry on things", parting poem, verse letters including travel poems, and new songs (page 256-324).

 

What is Opposition Poetics? (对立诗论)

The opposition poetics, as the immediate reaction to the court poetry, has different definitions for different people. Unfortunately, it has only a theory of lack of practice. To some extent, it is a kind of "fu-ku", "return to antiquity". It strongly rejects those poems' lack of directness and concision, political import, morality. In short, it opposes all characteristics of court poetry (page 14). Thus, the "opposition poetics" is not completely the return to antiquity although sometimes it implies the meaning in some cases. The representative literal theory works of the opposition poetics are "Wen-hsin Tiao-Lung" by Liu Hsieh (page 15) and "Treatise on Insect Carving" by Pei Tzu-yeh (page 16). The representative poets who use their special structural principles and styles to compose poems are Sui Wen-Ti (page 16) and his son Sui Yang-Ti (page 20), Wei Zheng, Li Pai-Yao (page 27-41), Wang Chi (page 61-71).

However, the great literary reformation away from the court poetry began in the year 661 (page 80). The four talents of Early Tang (初唐四杰) played a very important role in a departure from the courtly, although they still composed lots of court poetry. They respectively created their styles. Strictly speaking, Yang Chiung never really formed his style and could not be regarded as the reformer of the courtly (page 81), although later people classified them as a homogeneous family. Chen Tze-ang (661-702) is regarded as the first conqueror of court poetry (page 153). He encouraged directness and concision, admired the elegance and "Bi-xing", rejected completely soft, erotic, and over decorum of the Six-Dynasties, and interested in restoring to the of Han and Wei (Fu-Gu). His poetry was united with plentiful contents and straight forms. His verses were full of directness and concision. He stressed the social, political, and practical meanings of reality. Therefore, he is esteemed as the forerunner of the reformation of the Early Tang (part Three: Chen Tze-ang, page 151-223).

The summary and arguments:

The book gives us the whole picture of the poetry of Early Tang. The conventions of the poetry of the Early Tang provided poets in High Tang with a set of composition skills and forms. The poets of the High Tang increased their individuality and other structural principles. Although there are differences between the two periods, no evidence shows absolute isolation existing between them. In contrast, most poets in High Tang inherited the composition techniques of the Early Tang and developed these skills for their purposes. The history of the poetry of the Early Tang to High Tang can be referred to as the process of the topic from "Court" to "Popular". After the court poetry achieved the summit of the poetry development through the evolution from Southern Dynasties to Early Tang, people tried to develop a new style to express broader topics and wider sub-genres. I will argue here, besides the development of the literature and poets, politics, economy, military, and other Asian culture import might have produced some influences on the changes of the poetry of Early Tang to High Tang.





http://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3316383-1254229.html

上一篇:积极参加大学和社区举办的各种活动是拓展人生的难得的机会
下一篇:美国大学的转学生现象

0

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (0 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2020-11-25 05:42

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部