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科技英语写作基础(系列):容易用错的词和词组(D和E开头的) 精选

已有 3155 次阅读 2018-12-16 05:01 |个人分类:Scientific Writing|系统分类:教学心得| 科技英语, 写作, 词组

 如果你的目标是写小说,应该看原版The Elements of Style (免费下载):

http://www.jlakes.org/ch/web/The-elements-of-style.pdf

 

为了“完整”性,我们继续用The Elements of Style 不喜欢看英文原著的,凑合着看我的注解(不是翻译)。

有时,我会用Google Translate。GT现在还不成熟,你不要拿它当回事。

 

IV Words and Expressions Commonly Misused 

第四部分(45-63页),我只挑其中一小部分注解一下,因为我们是学习科技英语写作。如果你“喜欢”另外一些词,请告诉我。我会考虑补充。

 

因为想在年底完成这本书的“注解”。今天加速一倍!


Data. Like strata, phenomena, and media, data is a plural and is best used with a plural verb. The word, however, is slowly gaining acceptance as a singular. 

注解:和strata, phenomena, media一样,data是复数。但是,但是,现在常常也有人把它当成单数来用。

The data is misleading. (以前这样写,会被老师批评。现在OK。)

These data are misleading. (我依然老派。)

 

Different than. Here logic supports established usage: one thing differs fromanother, hence, different from. Or, other than, unlike.

注解:不要用different than。应该用different from

One thing differs from another.

或用other than, unlike.

 

Disinterested. Means "impartial." Do not confuse it with uninterested, which means "not interested in." 

注解:这个词是表明“公正”。不要和uninterested用混了。uninterested表明(不感兴趣)。

例子:

Let a disinterested person judge our dispute, (公正的人) 

This man is obviously uninterested in our dispute, (不感兴趣)

 

Divided into. Not to be misused for composed of. The line is sometimes difficult to draw;

注解:不能替代composed of。有时候,老美也会用错。

例子:

An apple, halved, is divided into sections, but an apple is composed of seeds, flesh, and skin. (切苹果时用divided into。注意:这里的苹果,不是苹果手机。)

 

Due to. Loosely used for through, because of, orowing to, in adverbial phrases. 

注解:大约相当于through, because of, owing to。

He lost the first game due to carelessness. (对的)

He lost the first game because of carelessness. (也是对的)


In correct use, synonymous with attributable to

注解:“严肃一点”,相当于attributable to

"The accident was due to bad weather"; 

"losses due to preventable fires."

 

Each and every one. Pitchman's jargon. Avoid, except in dialogue. 

注解:可以用于口语。不要用于文章。

It should be a lesson to each and every one of us. (口语OK)

It should be a lesson to every one of us (to us all). 


Effect. As a noun, means "result"; as a verb, means "to bring about," "to accomplish" (not to be confused with affect, which means "to influence").

注解:作为名词,意思是“结果”。作为动词,意思是"to bring about," "to accomplish" (不要和affect搞混了)。

As a noun, often loosely used in perfunctory writing about fashions, music, painting, and other arts: "a Southwestern effect"; "effects in pale green"; "very delicate effects"; "subtle effects"; "a charming effect was produced." The writer who has a definite meaning to express will not take refuge in such vagueness. 

注解:常常是作为名词:
 "a Southwestern effect"; 
"effects in pale green"; 
"very delicate effects"; "subtle effects"; 
"a charming effect was produced."
注解:这些用法其实是“含含糊糊”,好作家不会这么不清不楚地写东西。

 

Enormity. Use only in the sense of "monstrous wickedness." Misleading, if not wrong, when used to express bigness.

Google Translate: 仅在“怪异的邪恶”的意义上使用。用来表达重要性的误导,如果没有错误的话。
注解:不要乱用这个词。

 

Etc. Literally, "and other things"; sometimes loosely used to mean "and other persons." 

The phrase is equivalent to and the rest, and so forth, and hence is not to be used if one of these would be insufficient —that is, if the reader would be left in doubt as to any important particulars. 

Least open to objection when it represents the last terms of a list already given almost in full, or immaterial words at the end of a quotation.

At the end of a list introduced by such as, for example,or any similar expression, etc.is incorrect. In formal writing, etc.is a misfit. An item important enough to call for etc.is probably important enough to be named.

Google Translate: 从字面上看,“和其他东西”;有时候松散地用来表示“和其他人”。这句话相当于和其他人一样,等等,因此,如果其中一项不足,也就不使用 - 也就是说,如果读者对任何重要的细节都有疑问。当它代表已经几乎全部给出的列表的最后条款,或者在引用结尾处的非物质词语时,最不容易反对。
例如,或者任何类似表达等引入的列表的末尾是不正确的。在正式的写作中,等等是不合适的。一个足够重要的项目可能很重要,可以命名。

注解:我们常常用etc.
 但是,不一定用对了。原作者认为:在 such as,  for example 后面不应该用etc. 在“官方文件”中,也不应该用etc.

 

[科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(1)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146690


科技英语写作基础(系列):大纲(2)

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/home.php?mod=space&uid=306792&do=blog&id=1146716

  

1.    语态(1)

2.    常用时态

3.    一些标点符号“规则”(句号、逗号,参考The Elements of StylePart I)

4.    一些语法“规则”(主语、谓语的一致性、变化多端的代词、分词短语的主人,参考The Elements of Style Part I

5.    一些基本的写作“原则”(文章结构、段落、语态、简洁性等,参考The Elements of Style

6.    一些容易用错的词和词组(参考The Elements of Style

7.    修改、修改、再修改[简洁为上, see Chapter 7 Concision by Joseph/三种修饰语+两种“问题修饰语”,即悬空修饰语(p161)、错位修饰语/, see Chapter 8 Length by Joseph/逻辑性/一致性]

 

请大家多提意见。




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