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科学家杂志Best Places to Work Academia, 2011(翻译)

已有 4106 次阅读 2011-11-26 10:59 |个人分类:科学家杂志翻译|系统分类:科普集锦| 科学家, 2011, 学术篇, 最佳工作地

Best-Places-To-Work-Academia2011[1].pdf

原文链接:http://the-scientist.com/2011/07/01/best-places-to-work-academia-2011/

 

重庆医科大学检验系牛智通初译+四川大学生物治疗国家重点实验室陈铁林校正。水平有限请大家指正。

Best Places to Work Academia, 2011 2011年最适宜工作的地方之学术篇

Whether it’s attending a Scottish dance party or asking physics buffs to custom build your tools, researchers at this year’s top institutions are getting creative at work.

无论是参加一个苏格兰的舞会或者是让一个物理学家定制你所需的工具,这些来自今年排名靠前的研究组织中的研究人员在工作中正变得更具有创造力。

By The Scientist Staff | July 1, 2011


For many researchers, it’s important to love not just their work, but also their workplace. A productive research environment—and a fun, casual atmosphere to alleviate the stress of doing science—is a commonly cited plus of the institutions, both small and large, that topped our 9th annual Best Places to Work in Academia survey.

对于很多的研究者来说,除了爱上他们的工作,并且也爱上他们工作的环境这点很重要。一个多产的研究环境同时伴一个有趣的,随意的氛围来减轻研究者的压力的工作环境,在我们第九次年度最佳科研工作机构调查中排名前列的机构中,大机构和小机构,工作环境是通常是其被表扬的原因。

From year to year, institutions that garner the highest ranks are home to a relatively small number of researchers. Part of their strength lies in a strong sense of collegiality and the attention provided to researchers’ needs. The University of Dundee in Scotland, ranked #6 among international institutions this year, creates an atmosphere that is as playful as it is rigorous. Once a year, life scientists leave the lab for a weekend retreat to party in true Scottish style—with whisky, kilts, and exuberant dancing that leaves participants sore for days afterward. Though the university employs fewer than 500 full-time life science researchers(全职的生命科学研究者), a collaborative research environment aids the development of special programs, such as a group of scientists that helps spot potential drug targets across labs and translate them into medicines.

每年得分最高的机构对少数研究人员来说是家。机构的部分能力在于对共同管理和对研究人员需求关注有强烈的意识。在苏格兰的Dundee大学在今年的全球科研机构排名中排在第六。它创造了一个像它一样严格的俏皮气氛。每年都有一次生命科学家离开实验室一周参与正宗苏格兰风情的派对:喝着威士忌酒,穿着苏格兰方格呢短裙,跳起充满活力的舞蹈,以至于他们在活动后会全身酸痛好几天。虽然这个大学雇佣的全职生命科学研究者少于500人,但是一种相互合作的研究环境推动了某个特别项目的发展。例如一个项目组的科学家可以借助于整个实验室的努力准确定位出潜在的药物作用靶点并且把它制成药物。

Because of their small size, many of the top-ranked institutions are also nimble. Rather than isolating researchers in individual laboratories, they literally knock down the walls to encourage collaboration. Both the University of Dundee and the #1-ranked US institution, the J. David Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, have built their laboratories with an open plan that they say cross-fertilizes their science. Gladstone researchers also take advantage of the expertise at major institutions in close proximity to their campus.

因为规模相对小一些,所以很多排名靠前的机构都很灵活。他们完全的敲除不同实验室间的阻隔来鼓励相互之间的合作,而不是把研究者限制在自己的实验室里面。Dundee大学和排名第一的美国研究所,位于旧金山的J. David Gladstone研究所都有开放性计划来建设他们的实验室,说是杂交他们的科学。Gladstone的研究者也利用他们园区附近大机构的专业技术。

Though large universities can rarely offer their researchers the camaraderie that comes from a small, tight-knit community, their size provides access to high-end resources. Enterprising life scientists at West Virginia University, this year’s #20 US institution, take advantage of their school’s breadth of brainpower by tapping colleagues in the physics department to build custom tools they need. Large universities can also offer financial security, though no institution, large or small, has been immune to the recent decline in US federal funding. But with private institutions, pharma companies, and even non-US governments, fronting a larger proportion of research dollars—as in this year’s top international place to work, the Weizmann Institute of Science—institutions have kept research running smoothly in the face of economic adversity. Read more about the unique qualities of our winning institutions on the following pages. —Edyta Zielinska

虽然大的大学很少能提供研究者一个和较小紧密联系团体拥有的同志情谊环境。但它能提供获得高级资源的机会。West Virginia大学在今年在美国的机构中排在第20位。它们富有进取精神的生命科学家利用学校物理学院同事渊博的智慧来定制他们自己所需要的工具。不管大机构还是小机构都受到了最近美国联邦财政支持降低的影响,但是大的大学能提供财政安全。但是私立机构,制药公司,甚至像今年最佳工作地国际排名第一的Weizmann科学研究所等,这样需要大量研究资金的非美国政府研究机构却在面对经济逆境时维持了研究平稳运行。

阅读下面几页可以了解这些成功应对危机的机构的独特气质所在。

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Communal Science At The Gladstone Institutes

(共享科学在The Gladstone Institutes

No.1 in USA在美国排名第一

 

The J. David Gladstone Institutes, this year’s #1 US institution, is no newcomer to Best Places to Work in Academia, having ranked in the survey’s top 10 for the past six years in a row. Researchers cite its central location, which enables fruitful partnerships with neighboring institutions; access to cutting-edge equipment in communal core facilities; and shared research space as reasons Gladstone has consistently ranked as a top-notch research institution.

今年在美国机构中位列榜首的J. David Gladstone研究所并非第一次摘得美国最适宜工作的地方的桂冠了,他已经连续6年保持在前10名内。研究人员表彰了它的中心定位:即与邻近机构构建富有成效的伙伴关系,在公共核心设施上,获得尖端设备,合理的共享研究空间。这些都坚实地使Gladstone成为一流的研究机构。


Steven Kauder (right) and Eric Verdin examine HIV DNA in the Flow Cytometry Lab at this year's #1 US institution, The J. David Gladstone Institutes.

Steven Kauder (右)和Eric Verdin在今年美国机构排名第一的J. David Gladstone所,流式细胞仪实验室检测HIVDNA

Gladstone | C. Goodfellow

 

In 2004, the Gladstone Institutes, composed of three separate entities focused on different diseases, moved from San Francisco General Hospital to the University of California, San Francisco, campus in Mission Bay, just two miles down the road. The move put Gladstone not only in a shiny new building, but also “physically at the exact midpoint of five major institutions,” says stem cell and cardiovascular scientist Bruce Conklin—a real boon to research, enabling many collaborations and shared resources.

2004年,由以不同的疾病为研究重点的三个独立实体组成的Gladstone研究所从旧金山总医院搬迁到了离路只有两公里的旧金山加利福尼亚大学米森湾校区。搬迁不仅让Gladstone有了一个新的闪亮的大楼,而且位于五大主要机构的中点上,这实在是一个恩赐,这给了许多合作和共享资源,从事干细胞和心血管研究的科学家Bruce Conklin说。

 

This dense concentration of researchers also provides fertile opportunities for scientific think tanks and symposia. Last year, Gladstone virologist Eric Verdin, along with scientists from two nearby institutions, founded the Bay Area Aging Meeting, which meets every six months, drawing some 150 researchers who gather for postdoc and graduate student research talks and focused aging-related discussions. “We benefit enormously from the rich and collaborative environment of the San Francisco Bay area,” Verdin says.

这种密集的研究人员同样给科学智囊团和专题讨论会提供了大量的机会。去年Gladstone的病毒学家Eric Verdin创办了Bay Area Aging Meeting,它每半年举办一次,吸引了约150名研究人员来做博士后和研究生研究会谈,并重点进行衰老有关的讨论。“我们从旧金山米森湾区的丰富和协作的环境中获益良多” Verdin说。

 

Gladstone also encourages collaboration among its own scientists, with large, open rooms containing as many as 90 lab benches, shared equipment stations, and cozy enclaves lining the walls for coffee breaks and casual conversation. “The only reason you know you’re in one person’s lab or the other is looking at a name above the bench,” says Verdin.

一个大的房间里有可容纳90人的条凳,有共享的设备,可以靠着墙壁喝咖啡和非正式讨论的舒适地方,Gladstone同样用这种方式来鼓励它们自己科学家之间的合作。“你只能通过看板凳上的名字来确定你自己是在你自己的实验室还是其他的实验室” Verdin说。

 

And with a research staff of just 300, there’s never a wait for access to Gladstone’s eight core facilities, which provide services such as flow cytometry, microarray analysis, and transgenic mouse lines. “The [stem cell] core has enabled technologies that have catapulted my career,” says Conklin. “Had I been at another institution, I wouldn’t be doing this work.” —Hannah Waters

因为只有300名员工,你从来都不用为使用Gladstone的八大设备中心而等待,这些设备提供了像流式细胞仪,芯片分析服务和转基因小鼠线等服务。“干细胞中心有极大促进我研究的新技术” Conklin说。“如果我是在其它的研究所里面,我将做不了这项工作” Hannah Waters说。

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Public, Popular, and Proud

公立,流行与荣耀

It didn’t take long for Elena Pugacheva to learn about—and take advantage of—the perks that come with working at a large public university. Shortly after leaving her position at a private cancer center to accept a faculty job at West Virginia University, this year’s #20 US institution, she needed a new, specialized ultrasound machine for her research on cell proliferation in tumor cells. Rather than outsourcing the job to a private company, members of the physics department across campus helped build it. This kind of cross-disciplinary aid was something that simply wasn’t available at the cancer center, she says. “You didn’t have an in-house department that could do that. It’s a big plus here.”

对于Elena Pugacheva来说没有花太长的时间来了解和利用在大的公立大学工作所获得的馈赠。她离开一个私人的癌症研究所并在今年排在第20位的West Virginia大学找到了一份教师工作后不久,她需要要一个新的,专门的超声波设备来从事她有关肿瘤细胞增殖的研究。这个超声设备是由学校物理系成员帮助建造的而不是外包给私人公司。这种多学科的帮助在癌症研究所是没有的,她说:“你的机构内没有部门可以做到。但在这儿却可以,这是一个很大的优势”

Large public universities make up a quarter of the top 40 US institutions ranked in this year’s Best Places to Work in Academia. And it’s easy to see why: researchers like Pugacheva praise the ease of collaboration, involvement in departmental decisions, solid support of life science research, and importantly, relative shelter from the financial crunch of the last several years.

在今年的最适宜工作的地方之学术篇的前40位研究机构中,公立学校占了四分之一左右。并且可以很明显的看出其原因所在——像Pugacheva这样的研究者都称赞这种容易的协作,参与部门决策,对生命科学研究的坚实支持,并且重要的是,在过去几年财政紧缩的情况下也给予相应的保障。

When Kevin Glenn, a clinician and researcher at the University of Iowa, #31 on this year’s US list, experienced a delay in federal funding last year, his department stepped in and covered his expenses. “They just said, ‘We said we were going to support you, and we’re going to support you,’” says Glenn. “They didn’t bat an eye. They had the resources to do it.”

Iowa大学今年位列美国机构第31位,Kevin Glenn是该大学的一名临床医师和研究员。当Kevin Glenn去年遭遇联邦资金延期时,他的部门介入了并且填补了他的开支。“他们只是说‘我们曾经答应过要支持你,所以我们现在要支持你’” Glenn说。“他们甚至都没有眨眼睛,他们有能力做到”

In addition, as National Institutes of Health funding becomes scarcer, having part of your salary guaranteed by a public university relieves the stress of constantly going after grants to ensure a full paycheck, says Kelly Standifer, chair of the department of pharmaceutical sciences at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, this year’s #14 US institution. “There’s a little bit less pressure,” says Standifer, who has worked at public institutions since 1995. “You feel like you are able to conduct all facets of your [job]—teaching and research—without having to shortchange one of those.” —Megan Scudellari

另外,随着国家卫生研究所的资金变的紧缺,公立大学对你薪水的部分保证减轻了你持续跟踪基金来确保拿到全额工资的压力,今年美国机构排名14位的Oklahoma大学健康科学中心药物学部门负责人Kelly Standifer说。他从1995年开始就在公立机构工作,“还是有一点点压力,你觉得你可以处理你工作的各个方面,无论是教学还是科研,两者均能兼顾。”

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Scottish Hospitality at the University of Dundee

No.6 international

Dundee大学的苏格兰式好客

国际机构排名第六位

 

The annual retreat of the College of Life Sciences at the University of Dundee, #6 on this year’s international list, kicks off with a vigorous Scottish country party known as a Céilidh, where faculty and students representing more than 50 nationalities/ break a sweat while attempting traditional dance moves that leave muscles aching. In addition to being an excuse to drink whisky and wear kilts, the team dance encourages the camaraderie that Dundee researchers cite as one of the reasons they love working there.

Dundee大学在今年排名第6。其生命科学院的年假以一场轰轰烈烈的苏格兰乡村派对拉开序幕。这个派对就是有名的Céilidh,舞会上教授和学生代表了50多个国家。除了有理由喝威士忌和穿苏格兰短裙,团队舞促进了Dundee大学研究人员所赞赏的合作情谊,这也是他们喜欢在那里工作的原因之一。


The Harris Building, University of Dundee

Wikipedia

 

Set in the idyllic town of Dundee on the eastern coast of Scotland, the College boasts a world-class life sciences research community. With no doors or walls to keep them separate, its nearly 500 full-time researchers toil away in open laboratories within eyesight of each other. “We’re a high-powered research environment in a low-pressure living environment,” says Dean of Research Mike Ferguson.

设立在苏格兰东海岸有着田园式风格的Dundee大学以有一个国际化的生命科学研究交流为傲。没有了门和墙的分隔,近500名全职的研究人员在一个一眼就可以看到对方的开放式实验室里辛勤工作。“我们这里是在低生活压力环境中的高效率研究环境”研究系主任Mike Ferguson如是说。

In 2006, Ferguson led the effort to set up a one-of-a-kind drug discovery unit at the College. The 30-person team performs costly processes such as drug screening to help academics identify and develop drug targets, providing the College with a translational engine that “doesn’t exist in most universities,” he says. “We’re very aware that where possible, we should be thinking about new targets for drugs,” adds John Rouse, a Dundee biochemist who discovered the SLX4 family of DNA repair enzymes.

2006年在Ferguson的努力下一个独一无二的药物发觉小组在学校设立。这个30人的团队干着很花功夫的工作,例如他们要甄别药物来帮助学院鉴定和发展药物靶点。他们的工作为学校提供了一个其它大多数学校不存在的转化引擎。“我们很清楚这一点,只要有可能,我们就应该为药物想新的作用靶点” Dundee的生化学家John Rouse补充说。他发现了DNA修复酶的SLX4家族。

The College is also home to the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification, which specializes in forensic anthropology and human identification. The Centre has participated in relief efforts for global disasters such as the 2004 Asian tsunami, and more recently, helped secure a number of high-profile pedophile convictions.

学校同样是解剖与人类鉴定中心的所在地。中心是专门从事法医人类学和人体识别。这个中心已经参与了多次全球的灾害救灾工作,像2004年的亚洲海啸,并且最近他们还帮助一些有严重恋童癖的人定罪。

In the past decade, the university has spun out more than 20 companies that have generated some 500 jobs in the city of Dundee alone, earning the respect of the local community. Dundee’s taxi drivers “say they know all about the College of Life Sciences and that they’re very proud of it,” says geneticist Irwin McLean, who found a genetic link between allergies, asthma, and eczema. (See his article, “The Allergy Gene,” The Scientist, December 2010.) —Cristina Luiggi

在过去的几十年中,这所大学已经衍生出20多家公司,但是他们就给Dundee提供了500个工作岗位,得到了当地民众的尊重。Dundee的出租车司机说:“他们知道关于生命科学院的所有事情,并以它为傲”遗传学家Irwin McLean说到。Irwin McLean发现了过敏,哮喘和湿疹与遗传有一定的关联。(详见:“The Allergy Gene,” The Scientist, December 2010.)--- Cristina Luiggi

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What Economic Crisis?

什么经济危机?

Although the US government remains the biggest funder of life science research in the United States, grants from private institutions and industry collaborations are outpacing the growth in government dollars, and supporting many of this year’s top institutions during this time of economic hardship.

尽管在美国政府任然是生命科学研究最大的基金机构,但是来自私立机构和产业合作的课题经费正在超过政府资金的增长,在这个经济困难时期支持了很多今年排名前列的研究机构。

For example, at this year’s #1 US institution, the J. David Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, money from the hard-hit National Institutes of Health (NIH) makes up less of the research funding pie than in previous years, with pharmaceutical and biotech collaborations, Department of Defense funding, and philanthropic donations from William K. Bowes Jr., Tad Taube, and the like comprising larger slices.  Gladstone spokesperson Jeanette Borzo expects the trend to continue, with private philanthropic funding rising from its present level of 14 percent of the operating budget to as much as 25 percent in 2015.

例如今年美国排名第一的位于旧金山的J. David Gladstone研究所。随着制药和生物技术的合作,国防经费,来自William K. Bowes Jr., Tad Taube的慈善捐款和类似的经费,占总经费的大部分,来自NIH的科研经费比例比前几年的少了。Gladstone的发言人Jeanette Borzo预计这一趋势仍将继续,私人慈善经费将从现在占运营预算的14%2015年上升到25%

The 3rd-ranked US institution, the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington, has also benefited from increases in private funding—mainly from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation—which outpaced increases in federal funding. Similarly, the Carnegie Institution for Science, whose Stanford branches ranked 4th among US institutions this year, received hefty grants from the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation that helped faculty members “spread their wings” and start entirely new research projects, according to Carnegie spokesperson Susanne Garvey.

美国排名第3的位于华盛顿西雅图的Fred Hutchinson癌症研究中心同样受益于私人基金的增加。这些私人基金大多数来自Bill & Melinda Gates基金会,它提供的经费已经超过了联邦资金的增长。相似的,卡内基科学研究所(其在斯坦福的分支在今年美国机构排名第4)得到了来自Gordon and Betty Moore基金会和Alfred P. Sloan基金会的巨额支持。这些经费给了研究人员展翅飞翔的机会和启动全新的研究项目,卡耐基的发言人Susanne Garvey如是说。

Outside the United States, Israel’s Weizmann Institute of Science, the #1 institution on this year’s international list, has received increasing support from Israeli and European Union funding sources, offsetting a 6 percent drop in US government funding since 2007, according to Vice President Haim Garty. “As a result, the total grant money not only did not decrease during the economic crisis, but actually increased by as much as 20 percent since 2007,” he says in an e-mail. These funds, together with sharing of internal resources at the institution, helped “enable continuity of high-quality research in rough periods.” —Bob Grant

美国之外,在国际机构排名第一的以色列 Weizmann Institute of Science得到了来自以色列和欧盟持续增长的资金支持。Vice President Haim Garty,这些支持资金弥补了自2007年以来美国政府减少的6%。“最后的结果是总的补助资金量非但没有在经济危机中减少反而自2007年以来还增加了20%”,Vice President Haim Garty通过电子邮件说。Bob Grant说,“这些资金和机构内部共享资源一起让高质量的研究工作在恶劣的时期得以持续”


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