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每日翻译20190528

已有 321 次阅读 2019-5-28 07:34 |个人分类:翻译作品|系统分类:科研笔记| 异源同形, 同源, 趋同进化

#编者信息

熊荣川

明湖实验室

xiongrongchuan@126.com

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Bearjazz

A homoplasy is a character shared by a   set of species but not present in their common ancestor. A good example is   the evolution of the eye which has originated independently in many different   species. When this happens it is sometimes called a convergence. Homoplasies   can be compared with homologies, which are characters shared by a set of   species and are present in their common ancestor.

 

Note that the above definition of   homoplasy is its technical definition used by biologists. A homoplasy has an   older, pre-Darwinian meaning of similarity explained by a shared way of life.   For example, the wings of insects, birds and bats are all needed for flying:   they are homoplasious structures in the non-evolutionary, as well as the   evolutionary, sense.

 

 

异源同形(非同源相似)是一组物种共有的特征,但该特征不存在于它们的共同祖先中。一个很好的例子是眼睛的进化,它独立起源于许多不同的物种。这种情况发生时,有时也被称为趋同。异源同形可以与同源进行比较,同源是一组物种共享的特征,且该特征存在于它们的共同祖先中。

请注意,上述异源同形的定义是生物学家为便于操作给出的技术定义。它还有一个古老的,可追溯到达尔文之前的意义,即因为生活方式相似而产生的相似性。例如,昆虫、鸟类和蝙蝠的翅膀都是飞行所必需的:无论从进化的角度还是非进化的角度来看,它们都是同形结构。

 

                                                                                 

Figure: the wings of birds and bats are   homoplasies. They are structurally different: the bird wing is supported by   digit number 2, the bat wing by digits 2-5.

 

图:鸟类和蝙蝠的翅膀是异源同形的。它们在结构上是有差别的:鸟翼由第2指支撑,蝙蝠翼由第2-5指支撑。

http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ridley/a-z/homoplasies.asp

 




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