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每日翻译20190527

已有 275 次阅读 2019-5-27 07:05 |个人分类:翻译作品|系统分类:科研笔记| 趋异进化, 趋同进化, 同源性, 非同源相似性

#编者信息

熊荣川

明湖实验室

xiongrongchuan@126.com

http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Bearjazz

Divergent and Convergent Evolution

Homology is a product of divergent   evolution. This means that a single ancestor species split, or diverges, into   two or more species at some time in its history. This occurs due to some type   of natural selection or environmental isolation that separates the new   species from the ancestor. The divergent species now begin to evolve   separately, but they still retain some of the characteristics of the common   ancestor. These shared ancestral characteristics are known as homologies.

 

Homoplasy, on the other hand, is due to   convergent evolution. Here, different species develop, rather than inherit,   similar traits. This may happen because the species are living in similar   environments, filling similar niches, or through the process of natural   selection. One example of convergent natural selection is when a species   evolves to mimic the appearance of another, such as when a non-poisonous   species develop similar markings to a highly venomous species. Such mimicry   offers a distinct advantage by deterring potential predators. The similar   markings shared by the scarlet king snake (a harmless species) and the deadly   coral snake is an example of convergent evolution.

分化与趋同演化

同源性是趋异演化的产物。这意味着一个祖先物种在其历史上的某个时期分化成两个或更多物种。其实现由于某种自然选择或环境隔离,将新物种从祖先中分离出来。分化后的不同物种开始独立演化,但它们仍然保留着共同祖先的一些特征。这些共同的祖先特征被称为同源性。

 

另一方面,异源同形是由于趋同进化造成的。在这里,不同的物种发展,而不是继承相似的特征。这可能是因为物种生活在相似的环境中,填补了相似的生态位,或通过自然选择的过程。趋同自然选择的一个例子是,一个物种进化到模仿另一个物种的外观,例如,当一个无毒物种发展出与一个剧毒物种相似的标记时。这种模仿通过威慑潜在的捕食者提供了明显的优势。猩红王蛇(一种无害的物种)和致命的珊瑚蛇拥有相似的标记也是趋同进化的一个例子。

The Difference Between Homology and   Homoplasy

https://www.thoughtco.com/homology-vs-homoplasy-1224821

 




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