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华人与美国南北战争

已有 2329 次阅读 2018-12-4 01:33 |个人分类:科研偶拾|系统分类:科研笔记

19世纪中期来美国的华人,有寻金潮的,也有是逃避清朝与太平天国战争的。寻金热过后,有些留在美国的华人没有生活着落,参加了美国解放黑奴的内战。虽然他们总数在100人左右,但是按比例比欧洲裔还多,占了当时美国华人很大的比例。美国对参加南北内战的华裔军人,一直不承认他们的功绩,其他军人,战后得到俸禄,可以入美国籍,但是华人例外,没有美国国籍,也没有俸禄,他们是无国籍的一群流浪者。有些修铁路,也有跑到加拿大的。参战的华裔,有来自菲律宾,用西班牙名字,除非看到照片,无法认出是华人。当时的菲律宾有很多华人居民。直到2008年,美国政府才承认华人参与美国内战。1882年,美国公布排华法案,华人是唯一受歧视,被立法排除,不能成为公民的民族,法案到1943年取消,但是仍然以其他方法限制华人成为公民,直到1965年才正式废除。华人在多方面对美国的贡献一直被忽视不止,还是被特别针对歧视的对象。回顾这段历史,对中美人民认识两个关系有帮助。

以下是一些网上收集到有关华人参加美国内战的记录,原文是英文,部分用谷歌翻译为英文,稍事修饰,作为记录。


http://meloukhia.net/2017/02/the_secret_history_of_chinese-american_civil_war_soldiers/

The secret history of Chinese-American Civil War soldiers (Posted on 14 February, 2017 by s.e. smith 


美国痴迷其内战 - 北方与南方的故事已成为我们历史景观的一个引人注目的部分,尽管它经常被消毒和简化。部分简化包括擦除一些参与其中的人。你可能听说过扮成男人的女性要走到前线,但你是否知道华裔美国人也在内战中为联盟和南方邦联而战?虽然他们的队伍可能很小,但他们在美国历史上的一个奇怪时刻发挥了重要作用。


通常,当我深入研究华裔美国历史时,我会看到加利福尼亚和更广阔的西海岸。虽然参加内战的许多华裔美国人来自加利福尼亚州的金矿,但是我还冒险进入这个地方。在有系统的种族主义政策使他们在加利福尼亚州茁壮成长之后,一些人被渴望过上更好的生活所驱使。其他人有更接近家的原因。


在他决定逃离并为联盟作战之前,至少有一名士兵Ah Yee Way曾是巴尔的摩的奴隶。虽然被奴役的亚裔美国人数量相对较少,但他们绝对是奴隶制的一部分,而且,就像他们的其他种族同胞一样,他们并不奇怪渴望为解放而战。即使在服役期间发生严重眼外伤之后,他也想重新登记,并且他是唯一获得残疾养恤金的美籍华裔内战士兵。当他在19世纪90年代去世时,他值得一个纽约时报的观点 - 在一个仍然充满对亚裔美国人的强烈仇恨的国家。


有些像约翰汤米下士一样,在执行任务时死亡。约瑟夫·皮尔斯下士参加了许多重要的战斗,包括葛底斯堡。其他人,如克里斯托弗雷恩和斯蒂芬邦克,实际上为联邦战斗,捍卫他们的奴隶父母张和英邦克的利益。虽然确切地确定在战争中有多少华裔美国人服务是很棘手的(尤其是因为许多人使用西化名字),但至少有50人。


数量不是很大,但仍然很重要。亚裔美国人实际上也在1812年的战争中服役,表明他们致力于他们认为在家的国家,尽管它以偏见和仇恨奖励他们。在南北战争中作战的一些士兵不仅遭受了奴役,而且还受到了迫害他们的立法和合法化政策,使他们无法追求被大肆吹嘘的美国梦。例如,来自加利福尼亚的士兵和水手们已经到了收获金矿的财富,却发现他们基本上被拒之门外。


战争结束后,他们回到充满歧视态度的社区,从文件中的种族主义政治漫画到将他们赶出城镇并嘲笑他们作为“中国人”的人群。华裔美国人在铁路上被视为廉价,轻松易得的劳动力。在其他地方,有时甚至被当作劳工,引起更深刻的种族主义仇恨。尽管政府承诺那些在战争中服役的人将获得公民身份,但华裔美国人却因为“排华法”而受到谴责。这种否认意味着他们不能在他们为之奋斗的国家举行的选举中投票,而且还将他们排除在像家园一样的机会之外。在为美国冒着生命危险后,他们得到的就是废料 - 就像战后许多黑人士兵的承诺一样。


许多美国人不了解中国内战士兵的历史及其较大的背景。它们不仅仅是一个“奇怪的”事实,它引起了人们对战争的兴趣。他们讲述了美国历史和自我概念的更深层次趋势。后殖民化是美国最显着和最奇怪的事情之一,就是许多生活在压迫之下的人仍然愿意拿起武器来捍卫那些只用仇恨和怨恨来对待他们的国家。许多人自称为“美国人”并且与国家有着深厚的联系,在勇敢地战斗之后,他们再次成为尘埃,好像他们的贡献无关紧要。有些人肯定会打架,因为他们真正相信围绕美国的神话。其他人无疑希望战斗能为自己和社区带来合法性和公民身份,并且他们一再被贬低。


直到2008年,众议院才通过一项决议,承认和尊重亚裔美国人和太平洋岛民在内战中的作用。它主要是在雷达之下飞行,是每年通过的许多此类决议之一,承认并纪念和记录所有事物。然而,这是一个重要的时刻,因为美国政府近年来已经开始承认不仅仅是整个亚裔美国人的历史

=========

下面这网站有详细的记录,资料太多,不易翻译。国内可能看不到:

https://sites.google.com/site/accsacw/Home 


https://www.mccunn.com/Civil-War.pdf 一位华裔写的详细报告书,包括其他参考。


http://werehistory.org/veterans-to-remember/  上面McCunn的论文摘要。Ruthanne Lum McCunn 的Lum 应该是粤语“林”姓。

 

至少有58名华裔美国人在内战中作战,构成了一个基本上被遗忘的士兵和退伍军人社区。到19世纪50年代,华裔美国人 - 他们在1780年代开始抵达非洲大陆的西部地区,早在他们成为美国的一部分之前 - 也开始到达并在东海岸形成社区。他们有各种各样的方式:作为陪同返回的传教士的访客或学生;作为寻求新机会的商人或商人;作为表演者或艺术家寻找新的场地;即使是这个时代所谓的“苦力贸易”中的奴隶。在战争开始时,有数百名记录过这样的东海岸华裔美国人(很可能还有更多没有记录),许多人选择入伍。


在她最新的一本书中,中国洋基:美国内战的真实故事 - 将在退伍军人节发表,不下 - 历史学家和小说家鲁特南·卢姆·麦肯恩记录了一位这样一位被遗忘的老将托马斯·希尔法斯(Ah Yee Way)的故事。 。正如McCunn所详述的那样,西尔韦纳斯出生于香港,在19世纪50年代中期作为孤儿被带到美国,并在巴尔的摩被奴役,并在内战开始时逃到了联邦军队。尽管在他的第一次战斗中被部分蒙蔽,但他继续重新登记两次,在Spotsylvania拯救他的团体颜色,并在Andersonville度过了9个月的监禁,以及其他许多引人注目的战时和战后经历,这些都为他的1891年纽约时报做出了贡献。 ob告称之为“奇异的职业”。


然而,如果这些和其他积累的事件使西尔韦纳斯的生活变得奇异,那么他的内战服务就不是。大多数华裔美国士兵,如希尔瓦纳斯,为联盟而战,有些人也得到了同样的当代声誉和赞誉:下士约瑟夫皮尔斯为葛底斯堡联盟的胜利做出的贡献在葛底斯堡博物馆获得了一张照片。战争结束后,Edward Day Cohota继续在军队服役二十多年。在联邦军中至少还有两位非常杰出的华裔美国士兵:克里斯托弗和斯蒂芬邦克,着名的巡回演员连体双胞胎Chang和Eng Bunker的儿子们(他们在1860年代从他们的表演日退休并在一个成功的奴隶种植园中经营北卡罗来纳)。


碉堡,父亲和儿子的故事,说明了每个华裔美国内战士兵的故事的个性和复杂性,特别是他们入伍背后的动机。地理和文化认同显然是突出的因素。 Yung Wing是未来的外交官,曾就读于马萨诸塞州的蒙森学院,于1854年毕业于耶鲁大学,是第一位华裔美国大学毕业生,后来又成立了哈特福德(CT)中国教育代表团,以便让其他年轻的中国男士有机会接受他称之为“新英格兰的影响”,于1864年自愿为联邦军服役。这是邦克双胞胎的长子,他们在19世纪30年代结束了与PT的北美巡回演出。巴纳姆定居在北卡罗来纳州的威尔克斯县,在那里他们居住,养殖,并在接下来的四十年里创造了大家庭(他们之间的两个人在1874年因死亡而生了21个孩子),入伍参加了南方邦联军队。


然而,个人经历也塑造了士兵的选择。爱德华·科乔(Edward Day Cohota)作为一名贫穷的偷渡者来到美国,船上是塞拉斯上尉船长的商船。当Day和他的船Cohota于1845年12月27日离开上海时,他们带着一个饥肠辘辘的四岁中国男孩,他不知道自己的名字,发现偷渡日将他命名为爱德华并将他带回他的格洛斯特(马萨诸塞州的家,他在那里抚养他。爱德华后来加入了他的名字Cohota,并将12月27日作为他的生日,以纪念那艘船和原点;当他于1864年加入第23届马萨诸塞州步兵队时,可以说他正在为其他出生的孩子而战,因为弗雷德里克·道格拉斯如此有力地追踪,没有合法的名字和生日。而作为奴隶本人,托马斯西尔瓦纳斯更亲密和密切地知道这种经历;马里兰州可能是一个边境州,但希尔瓦纳斯的身份将他与联盟的事业联系在一起。


感谢像McCunn这样的学者以及与此相关的各种数字资源,我们现在对这些华裔美国士兵的了解远远超过几十年前的情况。在这个退伍军人节,很少有故事和历史更值得我们的集体记忆。

===========

https://civilwartalk.com/threads/asians-fought-for-the-confederacy.110683/ 


Charles Chon, a Chinese National, was a private in Company K, 24th Texas Dismounted Cavalry Regiment, C.S.A. He was killed at the Battle of Franklin, TN, on Nov. 30, 1864, and is buried on the battlefield at the McGavock Confederate Cemetery. Another Asian-Confederate was William Henry Kwan of Co. B, 15th (or 12th) Virginia Battalion of Light Artillery. Kwan is a Cantonese (Chinese) name. The Military Image magazine showed his picture in their 1993 issue, where he appears to be of mixed Asian and Caucasian parentage. Another verified Asian Confederate is John Fouenty, a native of China, who was a cigar-maker in Savannah, GA, when the war broke out. He served in the Confederate army for a year, then was released because he was under age. Private Fouenty later returned to his native China. Research by Chinese-American researcher Shaie Mei Deng Temple of New Orleans, LA, reveals at least eighteen Asian-Confederates in various LA units, with names like Chou, Coo, Ding, Fai, Foo, Gong, Hai, Ho, Joung, Lin, Lee, Lou, Pang, Poo, Ting, and Wong.

Perhaps the most famous Asian-Confederate soldiers were the two sons of famed P.T. Barnum Circus world-renowned Siamese Twins, Chang and Eng Bunker. (The Thai twins took the name "Bunker" to Americanize themselves.) Chang & Eng, joined at the chest from birth, were devoted Confederates, tobacco growers, and slave-owners, living as farmers in North Carolina after they retired from the circus. In 1865, Gen. Sherman tried to conscript (draft) a most unwilling Eng for the Union Army, but could not, since Chang had not likewise been conscripted! If Sherman had known more about their family, he wouldn't have bothered to even try to draft a Bunker, so fierce was the family's devotion to the Confederacy. The twins had married the Yates sisters and had several children, rotating between each others' houses every few days. During the war, the Bunkers strongly supported the South, providing food, clothing, and nursing to Confederate troops. Chang's son, Christopher, served in Co. I, 37th Battalion, Virginia Cavalry. He was wounded and captured at Moorefield, WV, and spent several months in a Yankee POW Camp before being exchanged. He had to eat rats to keep from starving in the Yankee POW Camp. Stephen Bunker, son of Eng Bunker, joined the same cavalry unit. He was wounded at Winchester, VA, and again before war's end. He and his brother both became farmers after the war.

Pvt. Charley Pang, Co. G. 1st La Infantry En. Federal Rolls of Prisoners of war. Captured near Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 20, 1863. Forward to Military prison, Louisville, Ky., from Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 30, 1863. Transferred to Camp Douglas, Chicago,Ill. in the city, about a mile south of the modern South Side Chinatown, Oct. 2 1863. Note: Co. G was named Orleans Light Guards Company.


Last edited: Jun 27, 2016

================

http://www.chineseamericanheroes.org/history/Chinese%20in%20the%20Civil%20War%20v3.pdf 


美国国家公园在内战150周年纪念(2016年)出版了《亚洲与太平洋裔参与的美国内战》一书。

https://www.nps.gov/civilwar/books.htm 

Asians and Pacific Islanders and the Civil War



美国国防部网站也录入了华裔士兵参加南北战争的资料

http://archive.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=44949 

Chinese Soldiers Fought in U.S. Civil War

By Jim Garamone
American Forces Press Service

WASHINGTON, April 24, 2001 – In the 1860s, if you wanted to send someone "to the ends of the Earth" you sent them to China.

Those were the days of sailing ships augmented by steam power and China was as remote from the Eastern United States as it was possible to be. Still, Chinese Americans found their way to the East Coast, and researchers claim that as many as 50 Chinese fought as soldiers during the American Civil War.

The number does not include the Chinese who served in the U.S. Navy during the war. The soldiers fought on both sides, researchers claim.

The first Chinese on record arrived in what became the United States in 1815. A Chinese ship's cook settled in Monterey, Calif., then a Spanish province.

The mariners of the Eastern seaboard traded with China. American ships vied with European traders to bring back the riches of the Orient. That was how a Chinese child ended up in Massachusetts.

In 1845, Sargent S. Day, captain of the square-rigged merchant ship Cohota, left Shanghai, China, bound for Massachusetts. Two days from port, he discovered two little half-starved Chinese boys on board. The older boy died, but Day "adopted" the younger boy and named him Edward Day Cohota.

Edward sailed the world with Captain and Mrs. Day until the captain retired to Gloucester, Mass. in 1857. He attended school and the other Day children treated him as a brother.

With the outbreak of the American Civil War, Cohota joined the 23rd Massachusetts Infantry. He fought in the Battle of Drury's Bluff near Richmond, Va., on May 16, 1864, and came out of the battle with "seven bullet holes thru" clothes. None touched his flesh."

At the Battle of Cold Harbor, Va., June 3, 1864, a Confederate Minie ball parted Cohota's hair permanently, but he was not otherwise hurt. He stayed with the Army of the Potomac through the end of the war.

After the war, Cohota rejoined the Army and was stationed at Fort Randall, Dakota Territory. He married and had six children. He served in the Army for 30 years. All that time, he thought he was a U.S. citizen and believed his Civil War service qualified him for the right. But he didn't take out his second set of naturalization papers until after the Senate passed the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. He was not a citizen and could not become one.

Cohota died at the Battle Mountain Sanitarium for Veterans in Hot Springs, S.D., in 1935.

Another Chinese soldier of the Union participated in the most famous battle of the Civil War -- the three-day Battle of Gettysburg, Pa.

Pvt. Joseph L. Pierce was age 21 when he enlisted in the 14th Connecticut Infantry in August 1862. It's unclear how Pierce ended up in the United States. One story has it that his father sold him to Connecticut ship Captain Amos Peck for $6. Another story was that his brother sold him for $60. Still another was that Peck picked up the lad, who was adrift in the South China Sea. Peck, a lifelong bachelor, turned the 10-year-old he called "Joe" over to his mother in Connecticut.

Young Joe went to school with the Pecks and formally became Joseph Pierce in 1853. He picked up the last name from President Franklin Pierce.

At the time of his enlistment Pierce was a farmer in New Britain, Conn. He listed his height at 5 feet 5 inches, dark complexion with dark hair and black eyes. His birthplace was Canton in Kwangtung Province, China.

His regiment participated in the Battle of Antietam, Md. Sept. 17, 1862.

He suffered some sickness during his time around Washington and was in the hospital for a time. He was assigned to the Quartermaster Department for a bit and rejoined the 14th in time for the Battle of Chancellorsville, Va. in May 1863.

The 14th had a distinguished role in the Gettysburg campaign. "It fought on the north part of Cemetery Ridge on July 2 and was one of the units that helped repel Pickett's Charge," said Gettysburg Historian John Heiser. "The 14th was primarily responsible for turning back Brig. Gen. James Pettigrew's North Carolina division." Today, you can see the 14th Memorial to the north of the grove of trees marking the High-water Mark of the Confederacy.

The 14th's regimental history says that during Pickett's charge, Pierce appeared "pig-tail and all, the only Chinese in the Army of the Potomac." But he wasn't.

Cpl. John Tommy, of Company D, 70th New York Infantry, fought with III Corps on July 2. Tommy also was Chinese and from Canton. "We don't know how he ended up in the United States," Heiser said. "He lost both arms and legs during the fighting around the Peach Orchard. He died in the hospital on Oct. 19, 1863."

A third Chinese soldier, Antonio Dardell, fought with Union troops at Gettysburg. "He was taken as a child from China by a sea captain," Heiser said. "He enlisted Oct. 22, 1862, in Company A, 27th Connecticut Infantry. He was from Clinton, Conn. The unit fought at the wheat field." Little else is known of Dardell except he was a tinsmith in civilian life and applied for a pension from the government in 1912.

Historians say there may be more Chinese soldiers. It is tough to pick them out because they often took American names. Another member of the 14th Connecticut Infantry, John Lee, may have been Chinese. Of course, he may have been no more Chinese than the Confederate commander at Gettysburg, Robert E. Lee.

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