武夷山分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/Wuyishan 中国科学技术发展战略研究院研究员;南京大学信息管理系博导

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穴位的历史有多长?

已有 6404 次阅读 2009-11-6 07:36 |个人分类:科普小兵|系统分类:科普集锦

穴位的历史有多长?

武夷山

1998109日的Science杂志发表了Leopold Dorfer等的文章,题目是“中欧地区5200年前的针灸”(5200 years-old acupuncture in Central Europe)。文章说:

现今发现的最古老的欧洲木乃伊,叫Tyrolean冰人。这个冰人木乃伊的背部和腿部分布着15组文身图案。根据三位执业针灸师的看法,这15组文身图案中,有9组的位置与穴位位置相差不到5毫米(含5毫米)。分布在背部的5组文身图案位置与膀胱经的穴位靠得极近,甚至完全吻合。CT研究表明,这位冰人患有腰椎关节病。而沿着膀胱经排列的那些文身点与治疗腰椎关节病应取的穴位完全吻合。

本网的陈晓文博主曾有一篇关于冰人的翻译报道,见http://www.sciencenet.cn/blog/user_content.aspx?id=46340

下面是关于冰人神妙之处的另一则译文,看来是机器翻译的,翻译水平不高,或者说很可笑,好在附上了原文。此文还含有关于冰人的不少图片,我就不转贴了,喜欢看图的可直接点击以下链接:http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=en&tl=zh-CN&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aliengods.jbsheets.com%2Flessons-of-the-tyrolean-iceman%2F%3Fgltr_redir%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252Ftranslate.google.com%252Ftranslate%253Fhl%253Den%2526sl%253Den%2526tl%253Dzh-CN%2526u%253Dhttp%25253A%25252F%25252Fwww.aliengods.jbsheets.com%25252Flessons-of-the-tyrolean-iceman%25252F

 

教训蒂罗尔冰人

Turns out we can learn a lot from Frozen Fritz.结果我们可以从中学到很多冷冻弗里茨。 Also called Oetzi, the iceman recovered from the Austrian alps in 1991 and has been carbon dated to 3300 bce Turns out he lived at the time of the Copper age in Europe.也称为冰人,冰的复苏,1991年奥地利阿尔卑斯山,并已碳追溯至公元前3300原来他在欧洲的铜时代生活的时间。 It is entirely possible that he is a representative of the Ozieri culture that later developed huge megalithic walls for defense against the very agressive Nuragic culture that began to take over the area in about 1600 bce His body was found 92.56 meters inside Italian territory (46°46'44?N 10°50'23?E? / ?46.77889, 10.83972).这是完全可能的,他是奥齐耶里文化的代表,后来发展为反对侵略Nuragic非常巨大的巨石文化的防御墙,开始对该地区采取公元前约1600发现他的尸体意大利领土内92.56米(46 ° 46'44ñ 10 ° 50'23é/46.7788910.83972)。

The Ozieri carved underground structures out of the solid rock called in their legends “domus de janas” or Houses of the Fairies.在奥齐耶里地下结构雕刻出的固体岩石中的传说多莫斯称德亚纳斯或仙女家。 These are considered graves but have long ago been looted, so there is no real evidence left of them being used otherwise.这些被认为是坟墓,但早已被抢劫,所以没有真正的证据,其中左,否则使用。 They lived as farmers and artisans, producing fine pottery, metal implements, obsidian, huge dolmen and megalithic circles such as that found in Stonehenge and Avebury.他们生活的农民和工匠,制作精美的陶器,金属器具,黑曜石,巨大的支石墓和巨石圈,如在巨石阵和埃夫伯里发现。 They had trade with areas all over the Mediterranean region.他们与各地的地区地中海地区的贸易。

They had a simple religion based on gods I recognize from other cultures all around the world: the Horned Bull and the Mother Godess.他们有一个简单的宗教对神我从其他文化的认识到世界各地:公牛的角和母亲女神的基础。

What do we learn from him?我们究竟向他学习? Here is a list of the things I thought were interesting:下面是我想的事情是有趣的名单:

·         High levels of Arsenic and Copper were found in his hair.高浓度的砷,铜,发现在他的头发。 This along with his copper axe which is 99.7% copper suggests that he was present, if not skilled, in copper smelting operations.这与他的铜斧是99.7%,铜表明,他是目前来说,如果没有熟练的铜冶炼业务。

·         Fingernail analysis indicates that he was quite sick at least 3 times in the last year before his death.指甲分析表明,他很生病去年至少3次,他的死亡。

·         His physical structure suggested that he was familiar with long walks over hilly terrain.他的身体结构提出,他超过丘陵地形熟悉散步。 This is not characteristic of the copper-age european of the time.这不是铜的特点年龄欧洲的时间。 Some have suggested that he was a high-altitude shepherd.有人建议,他是高海拔牧羊人。

·         He had tattoos over areas later determined to be arthritic.他对后来确定关节炎地区纹身。 Acupuncture, mystical magic?针灸,神秘的魔法? Either way, this suggests he was part of society and had access to the latest “medical” technology.不管怎样,这意味着他是社会的一部分,能够获得最新的医疗的技术。

·         Other items found with the Iceman in addition to the copper axe with a yew handle, he had a flint knife with an ash handle, a quiver of 14 arrows with viburnum and dogwood shafts.与除铜斧冰人发现,红豆杉处理的其他项目,他与灰处理,14和山茱萸与荚箭箭筒一轴火石刀。 Two of the arrows, which were broken, were tipped with flint and had fletching (stabilizing vents), while the other 12 were unfinished and untipped.的箭头,这两名被打破,有倾斜的燧石,并粘翼(稳定喷口),而其他12人未完成的和untipped The arrows were found in a quiver with what is presumed to be a bow string, a tool of some sort, and some antler which might have been used for making arrow points.箭头被发现在一个什么是推定为弓弦,某种工具,以及一些可能被用于制造箭头指向使用鹿茸颤动。 There was also an unfinished yew longbow that was 1.82 metres (72 in) long.还有一个未完成的红豆杉长弓这是1.82米(72英寸)长。

·         Also, among Ötzi's possessions were berries, two birch bark baskets, and two species of polypore mushrooms with leather strings through them.另外,都在奥茨的财产浆果,两个桦树皮篓,两个与皮革串通过这些多孔菌蘑菇种。 One of these, the birch fungus, is known to have antibacterial properties, and was likely used for medicinal purposes.其中之一,桦木真菌,是已知的抗菌性能,并负责入药可能。 The other was a type of tinder fungus, included with part of what appeared to be a complex firestarting kit.另一个是一个火种菌型,与似乎是一个复杂的firestarting套件的一部分。 The kit featured pieces of over a dozen different plants, in addition to flint and pyrite for creating sparks.该套件功能十几件不同的植物的,除了燧石和黄铁矿创造火花。

·         Ötzi had an arrowhead lodged in one shoulder when he died, and a matching small tear on his coat.奥茨曾在一肩去世时,他提出一个箭头,和配套的小型撕裂他的外套。

·         The arrow's shaft had been removed before death, and close examination of the body found bruises and cuts to the hands, wrists and chest and cerebral trauma indicative of a blow to the head.箭头的轴已被删除之前死亡,身体仔细研究发现伤痕和手,手腕和胸部,脑外伤的指示,以打击头部削减。 One of the cuts was to the base of his thumb that reached down to the bone but had no time to heal before his death.在削减之一是他的拇指基础,达成到骨头,但没有时间来愈合生前。 Currently it is believed that death was caused by a blow to the head, though researchers are unsure if this was due to a fall, or from being struck with a rock by another person.目前,相信死亡是由打击头部造成的,但研究人员不能确定这是否是由于跌倒,被击中或与他人的岩石。

·         DNA analysis revealed traces of blood from four other people on his gear: one from his knife, two from the same arrowhead, and a fourth from his coat. DNA分析发现血迹从他的四个齿轮其他人:从他的刀之一,来自同一个箭头两个,并从他的外套的四分之一。 Interpretations of the findings were that Ötzi killed two people with the same arrow, and was able to retrieve it on both occasions, and the blood on his coat was from a wounded comrade he may have carried over his back.调查结果解释都认为奥茨打死了两个人同样的箭头,并能够检索两次它,对他的外套血液从他受伤的战友可能比他的背部进行的。 Ötzi's unnatural posture in death (frozen body, face down, left arm bent across the chest) suggests that the theory of a solitary death from blood loss, hunger, cold and weakness is untenable.奥茨的非正常死亡的姿势(冷冻机构,面对下,左胸前手臂弯曲)指出,一个由失血,饥饿,寒冷和虚弱孤独死亡论是站不住脚的。 Rather, before death occurred and rigor mortis set in, the Iceman was turned on to his stomach in the effort to remove the arrow shaft.相反,在发生死亡尸僵规定,在冰人被打开他的腹部,努力消除箭杆。

·         The DNA evidence suggests that he was assisted by companions who were also wounded; pollen and food analysis suggests that he was out of his home territory. DNA的证据表明,他是协助谁也受伤的同伴,花粉和食物的分析表明,他是他的家领土内。 The copper axe could not have been made by him alone.铜斧不可能是由他一个人。 It would have required a concerted group tribal effort to mine, smelt and cast the copper axe head.这将需要采取协调一致的部落努力,矿山,冶炼,铸造铜斧头。 This may indicate that Ötzi was actually part of an armed raiding party involved in a skirmish, perhaps with a neighboring tribe, and this skirmish had gone badly.这可能表明,奥茨实际上是武装突袭,在参与党的前哨战,也许部分与周边部落,这前哨战已经严重了。 It may also indicate that he was ambushed or attacked by a rival tribe's raiding party on his way to deliver the axe.它也可能预示着他伏击或竞争对手部落的执法人员在袭击他的方式,即以开刀。

·         When the Iceman's mitochondrial DNA was analyzed, it was discovered that he had genetic markers associated with reduced fertility.当冰人的线粒体DNA进行了分析,人们发现他与生育率下降相关的遗传标记。 It has been speculated that this may have affected his social acceptance.据推测,这可能影响他的社会所接受。

·         Using a mixed sequencing procedure based on PCR amplification and 454 sequencing of pooled amplification products, Oetzi became the first complete mitochondrial-genome sequence of a prehistoric European.使用混合测序过程的PCR扩增及454汇集扩增产物测序为基础,奥兹成为第一个完整的线粒体基因组序列的史前欧洲。 Compared with 115 related extant lineages from mitochondrial haplogroup K. It turns out that the Iceman belonged to a branch of mitochondrial haplogroup K1 that has not yet been identified in modern European populations.相比115相关的线粒体单倍群光现存宗族原来的冰人属于一个线粒体单倍群K1是尚未在现代欧洲的人口确定的分支。 This is the oldest complete Homo sapiens mtDNA genome generated to date.这是最古老的智人线粒体基因组产生的日期。 Did his people just die out, become victim of genocide, or dispersed into the european population that has not yet been sampled.难道他的人就是死了,成为种族灭绝的受害者,或者到欧洲人口尚未采样分散。

OK, so maybe I didn't list everything.行了,也许我没有列出一切。 The analysis of the food he ate was able to place him in a specific valley within days of his death and so on.该吃的东西分析能为在一个特定的山谷他在他去世天等。 What I find so interesting is that this is a representative of a very odd cross section of the population at the time.所以我感到十分有趣的是,这是一个人口非常多截面当时代表。 He travelled extensively, was a technical adept, availed himself of the best medical care, was well-dressed, probably didn't have an immediate family, had friends who did similar activities and enemies with which he did quite a great job of fighting before he was killed.他四处奔走,是一个技术熟练,利用了最好的医疗照顾自己,是穿着得体,可能没有直系家庭,有朋友谁没有类似的活动,并与他的敌人也相当出色前战斗他被打死。 The Ozieri culture (according to mainstream archaeology) were farmers that didn't travel, were fairly pacifist, and built dolmens.文化的奥齐耶里(根据考古学的主流)的农民是没有旅行,是相当和平,建成支石墓。 Sounds like there is much more to the reality of life back in 3200 bce than meets the archaeological spade.听起来有较多的现实生活在公元前3200回比符合考古铲。 This was a serendipitous find, possibly an outlier, but I think it has implications for those who think that a homogenous worldwide civilization existed shortly after the last Neolithic Ice Age.这是一个偶然发现,可能是一个局外人,但我认为这对那些谁认为世界文明的同质后不久,最后新石器时代冰期存在的问题。

Posted on October 30, 2008 on 4:06 pm | In AA_Theory | No Comments 张贴于下午4



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