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逻辑哲学论(Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus )的文本和解释

已有 326 次阅读 2019-10-15 12:24 |个人分类:双语信息处理|系统分类:人物纪事| 维特根斯坦, 前期哲学, 逻辑哲学论

维特根斯坦:文本和解释

第一部分:前期维特根斯坦的基本思路“世界-思想-语言”的逻辑哲学论

真值函数的一般符号形式属于人工语言的符号体系。

1.13

1.13

The facts in logical space are the world.

逻辑空间中的事实就是世界。


2.12

2.12

The picture is a model of reality.

图像是现实的模型。

2.13

2.13

To the objects correspond in the picture   the elements of the picture.

图像中元素对应于图像中的对象。


2.19

2.19

The   logical picture can depict the world.

逻辑图像可以描绘世界。


3

3

The logical picture of the facts is the thought.

事实逻辑图像思想

3.0

3.0

3.1

3.1

In the proposition the thought is expressed perceptibly   through the senses.

在命题中,思想是通过感官来表达的。

3.2

3.2

In propositions thoughts can be so   expressed that to the   objects of the thoughts correspond the elements of the   propositional sign.

在命题中可以表达思想,以使思想的对象与命题符号的要素相对应。

3.3

3.3

Only the proposition has sense; only in the   context of a proposition has a name meaning.

只有命题才有意义。仅在命题上下文中具有名称含义。



4

4

The   thought is the significant   proposition.

思想是重要的命题。

4.0

4.0

4.1

4.1

A proposition presents the existence and   non-existence of atomic facts.

一个命题提出了原子事实的存在和不存在。

4.2

4.2

The sense   of a proposition is its agreement and disagreement with the   possibilities of the existence and non-existence of the atomic facts.

命题的意义是它对原子事实存在和不存在的可能性的同意和不同意。



5

5

Propositions   are truth-functions of elementary   propositions.

命题是基本命题的真值函数

(An   elementary proposition is a truth-function of itself.)

(基本命题本身就是一个真理函数。)

5.0

5.0

5.1

5.1

The truth-functions can be ordered in   series.

真值函数可以系列地排序。

That is the foundation of the theory of   probability.

那是概率论的基础。


[ p-bar  xi-bar N( xi-bar )].

6

6

The   general form of truth-function is: [ p-bar  xi-bar N( xi-bar )].

真函数的一般形式为:[ p-bar  xi-bar N( xi-bar )]

This is the   general form of proposition.

这是命题的一般形式。

6.0

6.0

6.1

6.1

The   propositions of logic are tautologies.

逻辑命题是重言式。

6.2

6.2

Mathematics is a logical method.

数学是一种逻辑方法。

The   propositions of mathematics are equations, and   therefore pseudo-propositions.

数学的命题是方程,因此是假命题。

6.3

6.3

Logical research means the investigation   of all regularity. And outside   logic all is accident.

逻辑研究意味着对所有规律性的研究。而逻辑之外都是偶然的。

6.4

6.4

All   propositions are of equal value.

所有命题是有等价的。


7

7

Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.

一个人不能说话,因此这一个必须保持沉默。


附录:


  • Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus


  • 1

  • The world is everything that is the case. *


  • 2

  • What is the case, the fact, is the existence of atomic facts.


  • 3

  • The logical picture of the facts is the thought.


  • 4

  • The thought is the significant proposition.


  • 5

  • Propositions are truth-functions of elementary propositions.


    (An elementary proposition is a truth-function of itself.)

  • 6

  • The general form of truth-function is: [ p-bar  xi-bar N( xi-bar )].


    This is the general form of proposition.

  • 7

  • Whereof one cannot speak, thereof one must be silent.




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