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1776年11月后华盛顿部分士兵在邻近会堂集聚纪念碑

已有 2087 次阅读 2015-10-16 04:58 |个人分类:美国纪行见闻(08A)|系统分类:科研笔记|关键词:1776年11月后华盛顿部分士兵在邻近会堂集聚纪念碑

177611月后华盛顿部分士兵在邻近会堂集聚纪念碑

 

黄安年文  黄安年的博客/20151015日下午美东时间; 16日凌晨北京时间发布

 

今天10:00-13:00,我们来到120公路上的Quaker Road一带寻找18世纪中期以来在附近居住的6家历史故居保存地,无意中在428 Quaker Road附近的420 Quaker Road旁边路上看到一块很不起眼的1912年所立的纪念碑,碑文上写着: 177611the Battle of White Plains乔治·华盛顿所部部分军队在附近与部分伤员一起在邻近的会堂集聚。而420 Quaker RoadMeeting House目前保存完好。

  这一纪念碑及老Chappaqua 地区历史遗址纪念碑,这一带的历史民居遗存及Douglas St & Hardscrabble Road 一带的Kipp家族旧居等遗存足以说明,当时这里的居民对于乔治·华盛顿部队的支持和当地居民的反英活动。也说明Chappaqua地区在独立革命时期就有载入史册的事迹。也是该地区历史教学的极好的乡土教材。

照片13张是今天上午拍摄于现场的。

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Battle of    White Plains

Part of the American Revolutionary War


Battle of White      Plains Historic Site

Date

October      28, 1776

Location

White Plains, New York
Coordinates: 41°2′24″N      73°46′43″W / 41.04000°N      73.77861°W / 41.04000; -73.77861

Result

British      victory


Belligerents

 United    States

 Great Britain
Hesse-Kassel

Commanders and leaders

George Washington
Alexander McDougall
Joseph    Spencer

William Howe

Strength

McDougall:    1,600
   Spencer: 1,500
[1]

4,000–7,500[2]

Casualties and losses

McDougall: 28    killed
   126 wounded
   16 captured
[3]
   Spencer: 22 killed
   24 wounded
   1 missing
[4]


   Total: 50 killed
   150 wounded
   17 captured or missing

47    killed
   182 wounded
   4 missing
[4]


[show]

New York
and New Jersey

     1776–1777

 



The Battle of White Plains was a battle in the New York and New Jersey campaignof the American Revolutionary War fought onOctober 28, 1776, near White Plains, New York.Following the retreat of GeorgeWashington's Continental Army northward from NewYork City, British General William Howe landed troops in Westchester County, intending to cut offWashington's escape route. Alerted to this move, Washingtonretreated farther, establishing a position in the village of White Plainsbut failed to establish firm control over local high ground. Howe's troopsdrove Washington's troops from a hill near thevillage; following this loss, Washingtonordered the Americans to retreat farther north.

Later British movements chased Washingtonacross NewJersey and into Pennsylvania. Washingtonthen crossed the Delaware andsurprised a brigade of Hessian troops in the December 26 Battleof Trenton.

Contents

[hide]

Background[edit]

Main article: New York and New Jersey campaign

British General William Howe, after evacuatingBoston in March 1776, regrouped in Halifax,Nova Scotia, and embarked in June on a campaign to gain control of NewYork City.[5] The campaign began with an unopposed landing on StatenIsland in early July. British troops made another unopposed landing on LongIsland on August 22, south of the areas where General GeorgeWashington's Continental Army had organized significantdefenses around Brooklyn Heights.[6]

After losing the Battle of Long Island on August 27, GeneralWashington and his army of 9,000 troops escaped on the night of August 29–30 toYork Island(as Manhattanwas then called).[7] General Howe followed up with a landing on Manhattan on September 15, but hisadvance was checked the next day at Harlem Heights. After an abortivelanding at Throg's Neck, he landed troops with some resistance at Pell's Point onOctober 18 to begin an encircling maneuver that was intended to trapWashington's army between that force, his troops in Manhattan, and the HudsonRiver, which was dominated by warships of the Royal Navy.[8] Howe established a camp at New Rochelle, but advance elements of hisarmy were near Mamaroneck, only 7 miles (11 km)from White Plains, where there was a lightlydefended Continental Army supply depot.[9]

Prelude[edit]

On October 20, General Washington sent Colonel RufusPutnam out on a reconnaissance mission from his camp at Harlem Heights.Putnam discovered the general placement of the British troop locations andrecognized the danger to the army and its supplies.[9] When he reported this to Washington that evening, Washington immediatelydispatched Putnam with orders to Lord Stirling, whose troopswere furthest north, to immediately march to White Plains. They arrived at White Plains at 9 am onOctober 21, and were followed by other units of the army as the day progressed.[10] Washington decided to withdraw most of the army to White Plains,[11] leaving a garrison of 1,200 men under NathanaelGreene to defend Fort Washington on Manhattan.[11] General Howe's army advanced slowly, with troops from his center and rightmoving along the road from New Rochelle to White Plains, while a unit of Loyalists occupied Mamaroneck.The latter was attacked that night by a detachment of Lord Stirling's troopsunder JohnHaslet, who took more than thirty prisoners as well as supplies, butsuffered several killed and 15 wounded. As a result, Howe moved elements of hisright wing to occupy Mamaroneck.[12] On October 22, Howe was reinforced by the landing at New Rochelle of an additional 8,000 troopsunder the command of Wilhelm von Knyphausen.[13]

The Elijah Miller House, which served as GeorgeWashington's headquarters in White  Plains.

Washington established his headquarters at the Elijah Miller House in North White Plains onOctober 23,[14] and chose a defensive position that he fortified with two lines of entrenchments.[15] The trenches were situated on raised terrain, protected on the right bythe swampy groundnear the BronxRiver, with steeper hills further back as a place of retreat. The Americandefenses were 3 miles (4.8 km) long. Beyond that, on the right, wasChatterton's Hill, which commanded the plain over which the British would haveto advance. The hill was initially occupied by militia companies numbering severalhundred, probably including John Brooks' Massachusettsmilitia company.[16]

On October 24 and 25, Howe's army moved from New Rochelle to Scarsdale, where they established a campcovering the eastern bank of the BronxRiver. This move was apparently made in the hopes of catching Charles Lee's column, which had to alter itsroute toward White Plainsand execute a forced march at night to avoid them.[17] Howe remained at Scarsdale until the morning of October 28, when hisforces marched toward White Plains, with British troops on the right underGeneral Henry Clinton, andprimarily Hessian troops on the left under General von Heister.[18]

Battle[edit]

A 1796 map showing the strategies of the opposing armies.

While Washingtonwas inspecting the terrain to determine where it was best to station histroops, messengers alerted him that the British were advancing.[19] Returning to his headquarters, he ordered the 2nd Connecticut Regiment under JosephSpencer out to slow the British advance, and sent Haslet and the 1st Delaware Regiment, along with Alexander McDougall's brigade (RudolphusRitzema's 3rd New York Regiment, Charles Webb's19th Continental Regiment, WilliamSmallwood's 1st Maryland Regiment, and the 1st New York Regiment and 2nd New York Regiments) to reinforceChatterton Hill.[20]

Spencer's force crossed the Bronx River, set up behind a stone wall, andexchanged fire with the Hessians led by Colonel JohannRall that were at the head of the British left column. Eventually forced toretreat when Clinton's column threatened theirflank, these companies retreated across the Bronx River,while fire from the troops on Chatterton Hill covered their move.[18] Rall's troops attempted to gain the hill, but were repelled by fire fromHaslet's troops and the militia,[21] and retreated to a nearby hilltop on the same side of the river. Thisconcerted defense brought the entire British Army,which was maneuvering as if to attack the entire American line, to a stop.[22]

While Howe and his command conferred, the Hessian artillery on the leftopened fire on the hilltop position, where they succeeded in driving themilitia into a panicked retreat. The arrival of McDougall and his brigadehelped to rally them, and a defensive line was established, with the militia onthe right and the Continentals arrayed along the top of the hill.[20] Howe finally issued orders, and while most of his army waited, adetachment of British and Hessian troops was sent to take the hill.[23]

The British attack was organized with Hessian regiments leading theassault. Rall was to charge the American right, while a Hessian battalion underColonel Carl von Donop (consisting of the Linsing, Mingerode,Lengereck, and Kochler grenadiers, and Donop's own chasseur regiment) was toattack the center. A British column under General Alexander Leslie(consisting of the 5th, 28th, 35th, and 49th Foot) was to attack the right.Donop's force either had difficulty crossing the river, or was reluctant to doso, and elements of the British force were the first to cross the river. Rall'scharge scattered the militia on the American right, leaving the flank of theMaryland and New York regiments exposed as they poured musket fire onto theBritish attackers, which temporarily halted the British advance. The exposureof their flank caused them to begin a fighting retreat, which progressivelyforced the remainder of the American line, which had engaged with the othersegments of the British force, to give way and retreat. Haslet's Delaware regiment, whichanchored the American left, provided covering fire while the remaining troopsretreated to the north, and were the last to leave the hill.[24] The fighting was intense, and both sides suffered significant casualtiesbefore the Continentals made a disciplined retreat.[25]

Casualties[edit]

Mezzotintartist rendition of General Howe, by Charles Corbutt, ca. 1777

~ Battle of White Plains~

150th Anniversary Issue of 1926

USS White Plains (CVE-66)

John Fortescue's History ofthe British Army says that Howe's casualties numbered 214 British and 99Hessians.[26] However, Rodney Atwood points out that Fortescue's figure for the Hessiansincludes the entire Hessian casualties from 19–28 October and that in fact only53 of these casualties were incurred at the Battle of White Plains.[27] This revised figure would give a total of 267 British and Hessians killed,wounded or missing at White Plains.Henry Dawson, on the other hand, gives Howe's loss as 47 killed, 182 woundedand 4 missing.[4] The American loss is uncertain. Theodore Savas and J. David Dameron give arange of 150-500 killed, wounded and captured.[28] Samuel Roads numbers the casualties of 47 killed and 70 wounded.[29] Henry Dawson estimates 50 killed, 150 wounded and 17 missing forMcDougall's and Spencer's commands but has no information on the losses inHaslet's regiment.[4]

Aftermath[edit]

The two generals remained where they were for two days, while Howereinforced the position on Chatterton Hill, and Washington organized his army for retreatinto the hills. With the arrival of additional Hessian and Waldeck troops underLord Percy on October 30,Howe planned to act against the Americans the following day. However, a heavyrain fell the whole next day,[30] and when Howe was finally prepared to act, he awoke to find that Washington had againeluded his grasp.[31]

Washington withdrew his army into the hills to the north on the night of October 31,establishing a camp near North Castle.[31] Howe chose not to follow, instead attempting without success to draw Washington out.[32] On November 5, he turned his army south to finish evicting ContinentalArmy troops from Manhattan, a task he accomplished with the November 16 Battle of Fort Washington.[33]

Washington eventually crossed the Hudson River at Peekskill with most of his army, leaving NewEngland regiments behind to guard supply stores and important rivercrossings.[34] Later, British movements chased him across New Jerseyand into Pennsylvania, and the British established a chain ofoutposts across New Jersey.Washington, seeing an opportunity for avictory to boost the nation's morale, crossed the Delaware andsurprised Rall's troops in the December 26 Battleof Trenton.[35]

Legacy[edit]

Each year on or near the anniversary date, the White Plains HistoricalSociety hosts a commemoration of the event at the JacobPurdy House in White Plains, New York.[36] Two ships in the United States Navy were named for the Battle ofWhite Plains. CVE-66 was an escortcarrier in World War II. AFS-4 was a combat stores ship that was decommissioned in1995 after suffering extensive damage in 1992's TyphoonOmar.[37][38]

According to some historians, the HeadlessHorseman depicted in WashingtonIrving's short story "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" wasinspired by a real-life Hessian soldier who lost his head by cannon fire duringthis battle.[39]

Notes[edit]

1.                       Jumpup ^Dawson, p. 269. No exact count is knownfor the Massachusettsmilitia.

2.                       Jumpup ^British reports do not indicate exactly how manytroops were engaged; most historians do not list specific values. Dawson estimates 7,500(p. 269), more than one half of Howe's army. Alden estimates 4,000 (p. 273).

3.                       Jumpup ^Dawson, p. 270. Numbers are minimum;casualties are not known for Haslet's regiment or the Massachusetts militia.

4.                       ^ Jumpup to: abcdDawson, p. 270

5.                       Jumpup ^Schecter, pp. 85,97

6.                       Jumpup ^Schecter, pp. 100, 118–127

7.                       Jumpup ^McCullough,1776,pp. 188–191

8.                       Jumpup ^Schecter, pp. 179–230

9.                       ^ Jumpup to: abSchecter, p. 232

10.                    Jumpup ^Schecter, p. 233

11.                    ^ Jumpup to: abLengel, p. 161

12.                    Jumpup ^Dawson, pp. 252–253

13.                    Jumpup ^Schecter, p. 231

14.                    Jumpup ^"MillerHouse". Westchester County Parks Department. Archivedfrom the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-26. 

15.                    Jumpup ^Greene, p. 52

16.                    Jumpup ^Dawson, p. 261

17.                    Jumpup ^Dawson, pp. 258–259

18.                    ^ Jumpup to: abDawson, p. 260

19.                    Jumpup ^Lengel p.162

20.                    ^ Jumpup to: abDawson, p. 263

21.                    Jumpup ^Schecter, p. 238

22.                    Jumpup ^Dawson, pp. 262-263

23.                    Jumpup ^Dawson, p. 264

24.                    Jumpup ^Dawson, pp. 265-267

25.                    Jumpup ^Schecter, p. 240

26.                    Jumpup ^Boatner, p. 1201

27.                    Jumpup ^Atwood, p. 75

28.                    Jumpup ^Savas and Dameron, p. 80

29.                    Jumpup ^Roads, Chapter VIII, p. 153

30.                    Jumpup ^Schecter, p. 241

31.                    ^ Jumpup to: abSchecter, p. 242

32.                    Jumpup ^Dawson, pp. 274–276

33.                    Jumpup ^Schecter, pp. 243–257

34.                    Jumpup ^Schecter, p. 245

35.                    Jumpup ^Schecter, pp. 255–267

36.                    Jumpup ^WhitePlains Historical Society Event Calendar

37.                    Jumpup ^"Dictionaryof American Naval Fighting Ships — White Plains". Naval History &Heritage Command. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 

38.                    Jumpup ^"Afterthe storm; Thousands on Guam lose homes in typhoon". New York Times. 1992-08-29.Retrieved 2010-02-18. 

39.                    Jumpup ^Smith, Jacqueline (October 25, 2013). ""HalloweenHistory: The Legend of Sleepy Hollow"". New-York Historical Society Museum & Library: HistoryDetectives. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia  Commons has media related to Battle of White Plains.




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