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英文摘要写作中的修辞与文体

已有 7753 次阅读 2008-7-10 21:21 |个人分类:博主论著

英文摘要的修辞

(1) 摘要中的第一句话不要与文题重复,要有所变化,补充一些细节。如文题为:Expression of RACK1 in primary colon cancers. 则摘要第一句话不要写为To detect the expression of RACK1 in primary colon cancers. 最好改为To detect RACK1 gene over-expressed in primary colon carcinoma by in situ hybridisation.

(2) 可用动词的情况应尽量避免应用动词的名词形式。如: 应当用Her-2 oncogene amplification in prostate cancer was measured. 而不用Measurement of Her-2 oncogene amplification in prostate cancer was made.

(3) 正确使用冠词,包括定冠词the和不定冠词a an;区分可数名词和不可数名词是关键。如expression做(基因)表达用时为不可数名词,不能加“s”. 对可数名词尽可能使用其复数形式。

(4) 应当用预置短语分开或用连字符断开名词词组,避免使用连续多个形容词或名词来修饰名词。如用sections of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues, 而不用formalin fixed and paraffin embedded tissue sections

(5) 注意平行结构:在表述各相同的并列成分时,不论是词类、词组、从句或分句,每个成分都必须对等。如The purpose of this study was to analyze the new proposed classification and determining which classification was clinically useful. 其中第二个表语是动名词短语,与第一个表语不定式短语不一致,不符合平行结构原则。

(6) 比较必须在同类的事物之间进行,切忌对不同类型事物进行比较。例如:The survival of patients with MSI+ phenotype was better than MSI- phenotype. 此句比较对象不对等,应改为The survival of patients with MSI+ phenotype was better than that of patients with MSI- phenotype.

英文摘要的文体

(1) 要客观地叙述方法和结果, 用词要质朴无华, 避免使用带感情色彩或广告式宣传的词语。不宜写类似下列的句子:A very interesting example is found that …; The staining yields excellent results; The method is very useful for … .

(2) 使用正式文体, 不用口语体和非规范缩写词。如isn’t, aren’t, hadn’t, hadn’t, haven’t, don’t, can’t, wouldn’t, a lot of, a bit, too(also), thru(through), exam (examination), lab(laboratory)

(3) 造句时尽量使动词靠近主语。如:用Our results are in contradiction with these observations because 53% of our MFH-like PLPs and 10% of epithelioid PLPs were immunoreactive for CD34. 而不用Our results that 53% of MFH-like PLPs and 10% of epithelioid PLPs were immunoreactive for CD34, are in contradiction with these observations.

(4) 尽量应用重要事实开头,避免短语或从句开头。如MCMV tended to infect GFAP-positive glial cells in the periventricular area during acute infection in the present study. 而不用In the present study, during acute infection, MCMV tended to infect GFAP-positive glial cells in the periventricular area.

(5) 摘要只限表示新消息、新内容,应减少或取消对过去研究情况的描述,减少或取消不必要的背景信息。摘要也不应包括作者对未来的计划,如有关XXX方面的研究有待于进一步开展等。

(6) 省略。为避免重复和缩小摘要的篇幅,科技英语多采用省略的写法。在并列复合句里,后面分句如与前面分句相同的部分,往往可以省略。常见的是谓语动词省略,在省略处可用或不用逗号分开。如,Despite vaccination, one patient developed pneumococcal menigitis and another, pneumococcal bacteremia. 此外,用when, while, if, as, though (although)whether 等连词连接的时间、条件、方式、让步等从句,如其谓语中有be,而且其主语与主句的主语相同或为it时,从句的主语和be也可以省略。

(7) 避免使用悬垂分词(hanging participle). 使用没有逻辑主语的分词短语做状语,是一种最常见的修辞错误,例如: Following his advice, the bacteria were stained with thionin. 应写为Following his advice, we stained the bacteria with thionin. In accordance with his advice the bacteria were stained with thionin.

(8) 避免是一些含义模糊的形容词或副词。如: considerable, appreciable, substantial, very, relatively, comparatively, essentially, duly, somewhat, rather, necessarily, inevitably 等。

(9) 删繁就简,应当用合适的短语代替子句,用合适的单词代替短语。如: increased 代替has been found to increase, was代替was considered to be, seemingly代替it would seem that, 等等。

相关论文:张建中, 任胜利. 病理学论文英文摘要写作的几个问题. 中华病理学杂志, 2004, 33(4): 396-398

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