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水4.0:饮用水的过去、现在与未来 (双语Ch 9节选)

已有 1828 次阅读 2015-9-9 16:13 |个人分类:Water 4.0|系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:Water,4.0,,Chapter,9| Water, chapter


9

Paying for the Fourth Revolution

第九章

第四次水革做准

My water bill is just one of many that land in my physical and virtual mailbox every month. In addition to telling me what I owe, it helpfully points out the amount of water my family used and the breakdown of fees for different tasks that my local water company does to keep the water flowing to and the sewage flowing away from my home. Fifty dollars a month puts in the same price range as the monthly bills for cell phones, electricity, and Internet service. In fact, if I calculate the cost by volume used, my family spends a little less than half a cent per liter (two cents per gallon) for our water. That’s not bad if you consider all of the hard work that went into solving the problems of thirsty cities, cholera outbreaks, and sewage-choked rivers.

我的水费单只是每月入我普通箱和箱里众多账单一。水费账单除了告付的水外,还罗列了我家的用水量,并提供当地水在确保清水流我家及水流出我家的程中,各种不同目的用明。水每月50美元,与每月的电话费电费和网络费在同一个价格范。事上,如果按用水的体积计算成本,我家每升水的花不到半美分。如果考解决那些如城市缺水、霍乱疫情暴,以及充下水道水的河流所需要付出的辛工作,你就会是非常合理的。

 

Although most of us give little thought to the details of the humble water utility bill, it may well hold the key to our urban water future. If the ways in which out utilities collect money prevent them from investing in new infrastructure before water systems reach a state of emergency, the problems described in the previous chapters are going to get a lot worse before anything is done about them. And if patching up the existing system ultimately proves to be a lot less expensive than adopting radically new approaches to supplying clean water and treating wastewater, we may end up investing in repairs to the weak points in the system for decades before we upgrade to Water 4.0.

然我大多数人很少考虑这不起眼的水费账单细节,但它很可能是保障城市水未来的关。如果水在城市水系统濒临紧急状之前未能募集到用于投入新基础设施建所需要的金,那么在城市水系亡羊牢之前,前面章所描述的问题会愈加化。如果最终证有水系(包括提供清水和水),比采用全新方法要省不少金的,那么我可能会在今后几十年里一直投资维修那些水系中存在的薄弱环节,而不是努力升级进入“水4.0”。

 

Historically, utilities in the U.S. have almost always struggled to raise the money needed to improve water treatment and delivery systems, but in recent years it has become tougher. Unbeknownst to most people, the ways in which water utilities fund their operations had shifted over the past twenty-five years: before the late 1980s, operating costs were paid mainly through utility bills, while much of the investment in new reservoirs, pipelines, and treatment plants was paid for by deferral grants. A shift away from federal funding, coupled with increasing costs of operation, means that water bills are rising at rates faster than inflation just to maintain the status quo.

史上看,美国的水几乎是很费劲地在筹集用于改善水理与运送系金。不,近些年来种情况更为严重。大多数人可能不清楚,水的运方式在去25年已生了化:20世80年代末之前,运营费用主要是靠收取居民水电费的形式支付,而大部分用于新修水水管道、理厂的投资费用由邦政府款支付。金的减少,加上运成本的增加,意味着若要状,水的速度必速度。

 

(Last two paragraphs of Chapter 9)

New scientific research is also showing that our sewage treatment plants might not be doing a good enough job. As discussed in Chapter 8, newly discovered chemical contaminations in sewage can cause endocrine disruption and other undesirable outcomes in the fish and wildlife that live in effluent-dominated waters. Because sewage treatment plants were not designed to remove the trace concentrations of chemicals that cause these problems, it is possible that additional treatment processes will be needed to protect the aquatic ecosystems downstream of the sewage discharge points. Simultaneously, regulators around the country are reconsidering their approaches for managing nutrients released by wastewater treatment plants and storm sewers as they struggle to control algae blooms and oxygen depletion in sensitive habitats. For example, a lawsuit by a local environmental group in Florida resulted in the EPA setting controversial new discharge standards for nitrogen and phosphorus that are considerably more stringent than those currently in place. The new regulations are expected to require many of the state’s wastewater treatment plants to upgrade to state-of-the-art nutrient removal systems and the managers of storm sewers to invest in measures to remove nutrients from urban runoff. The EPA estimates that the cost will be between three to six dollars a month for a typical family, while industry groups claim it will cost the state’s utilities about $21 billion to come into compliance.47

新的科学研究也表明,在的理厂可能完善。正如第八章中所讨论的,水中新发现的化学染物,可能致生活在以的水体中的鱼类和其他野生物的内分泌失,以及其他不良果。由于理厂原先并没有设计来去除引起问题的微量度的化学物,所以可能需要外的理工来保护污水排放口下游的水生生。同,美国各地的管机构正在重新考用于管理理厂和雨水下水道排出的养物的方法,因控制敏感栖息地的水和耗氧问题。例如,佛里达州的地方组织诉讼案,致美国境保定了有争的氮、磷排放新准,些排放准比目前正在施的更为严格。新定将要求各个州的理厂升到最先的脱氮除磷理系,并要求雨水下水道的管理者采取措施去除城市径流中的养物。据美国境保署估,一个普通家庭每月的水将增加3~6美元。然而工业协会声称,了履行法律的相关定,佛里达州的水将花费约210亿美元[47]

 

As we have seen, modern water systems are being pushed to the edge by costs associated with personnel, pipes, energy, and pollution, and it seems almost certain that all or most of these pressure will continue. We can be sure, then, that our water bills will continue to increase for the next few decades. According to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), consumers in most developed countries already pay about twice as much as the average American for drinking water and sewer service.48 Given the current rates at which water utility bills are increasing, it seems likely that in about 15 years our bills will reach the current levels paid in our OECD peer countries—and there is no reason to think that they will stop there. But the knowledge that a more expensive future is coming can also be the wakeup call we need to not just patch over our aging water infrastructure, but the reinvent urban water systems in a way that ensures that they provide a morereliable source of water that will simultaneously protect our health and the environment.

正如已看到的那代水系已被各种与人、管道、能源和染相关的用逼到了境,并且几乎可以肯定,来的力,其中的全部或大部分仍将继续。那么可以肯定,在接下来的几十年里,水费还继续增加。经济合作与组织OECD)认为,大多数达国家的消者已支付了两倍于美国用水和下水道的平均服务费[48]于目前的增速度,水费标准很可能在15年后达到OECD其他达国家目前的支付水平,而且,没有理由认为在那以后不会再增。但是个即将到来的、更加昂的水未来的认识,可以作警示提醒我,我需要的不只是老化的水利基础设施的修修补补,而是重塑城市水系———一种能提供更可靠水源,并能同健康和境的新型水系

 

 

ps. I typed up the English myself, so errors are possible.


水4.0:用水的去、在与未来

[美]戴·塞德拉克 著

徐向荣 等    虞左俊 校

上海科学技出版社


出版时间:2015.08

ISBN:978-7-5478-2729-1

定价:38元


Water 4.0: The Past, Present, and Future of the World's Most Vital Resource

Paperback:March 31, 2015

by David Sedlak (Author)





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