# 计算机与计算模式 (2) 何谓计算？ 精选

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 ABC n=2n2=4log2n=1 n=4n2=16log2n=2 n=6n2=36log2n=3 n=30n2=900log2n=5 n=109n2=1018log2n=30 A 0.002秒 0.004秒 0.006秒 0.030秒 约11天14小时 B 0.004秒 0.016秒 0.036秒 0.9秒 约33,000,000年 C 0.001秒 0.002秒 0.003秒 0.005秒 0.030秒

[1] D. Hilbert and W. Ackermann, “Grundzüge der theoretischen Logik,” Springer-Verlag, 1928(1st Ed.), 1938(2nd Ed.), 1949(3rd Ed.), 1959(6th Ed.).(in German)

[2] K. Godel, “Uber formal unentscheidbare satze der Principia Mathematica und verwander systeme,” Monatschefte fur Mathematik und Physik, 38, pp. 173-198, 1931. (in German)

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[5] A． Church, “A Note on the Entscheidungsproblem,” Journal of Symbolic Logic, 1, pp. 40-41, 1936.

[6] A． Church, “The Calculi of Lambda Conversion,” Princeton University Press, 1941.

[7] E.L. Post, “Finite Combinatory Processes – Formulation 1,” Journal of Symbolic Logic, 1, pp. 103-105, 1936.

[8] A. Turing, “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem,” Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, Series 2, 42, pp. 230-265, 1936, Series 2, 43, pp. 544-546，1937.

[9] B. Randell, “On Alan Turing and the Origins of Digital Computers,” Machine Intelligence, 7, pp. 3-20, Edinburgh University Press, 1972.

[10] B. Randell, “The COLOSSUS,” in N. Metropolis, et al. (Ed.), “History of Computing in the Twentieth Century,” Academic Press, 1980.

[11] C. Petzold, “The Annotated Turing: A Guided Tour through Alan Turing’s Historic Paper on Computability and the Turing Machine,” Wiley, 2008.

[12] 星野力，“是谁，如何创造了计算机？” 共立出版社, 1995 (日文).

[13] J. von Neumann, “First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC,” 1945, published in the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 27-43, 1993.

[14] A.W. Burks, H.H. Goldstine, and J. von Neumann, “Preliminary Discussion of the Logical Design of an Electronic Computing Instrument,” Institute for Advanced Study, Princetion, 1946. (in [15])

[15] B. Randell (Ed.), “The Origins of Digital Computers,” 3rd Edition, Springer-Verlag, 1982.

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