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重读Julius Caesar

已有 2159 次阅读 2018-12-22 09:37 |个人分类:休闲阅读|系统分类:人文社科| 莎士比亚, 凯撒, 历史, 随感, 札记

Julius Caesar(《尤里斯·凯撒》)是莎翁剧本中相对容易的一部。这次重读的是商务的“莎士比亚注释丛书”版,裘克安先生注释。该书与牛津版全集在分场方面有些差别。不久前在古罗马广场看过当年停放遇刺的凯撒遗体之处,现在是凯撒神庙遗址,读剧本尤其觉得亲切。

 

剧本的情节比较简单。Caesar在罗马民众中威望日高,已经是终身执政,还有意加冕称王。与Caesar有私怨的Cassius策划行刺Caesar的阴谋。他成功地说服了正直有威望的名门之后Brutus加盟,他受Caesar恩惠,但愿意为保卫共和诛杀CaesarCaesar感受到种种凶兆,在妻子Calpurnia劝阻下本来打算缺席元老院的会议,但反对者以可能授予他王权为由诱使他到元老院。在那里,十余人按计划杀死CaesarCassiusBrutus同时也杀了Caesar的爱将Antony,但Brutus拒绝。Antony表示如果他们向罗马市民解释杀死Caesar的理由充分,他愿意与他们合作。在Caesar葬礼上,Brutus先演讲, 赢得罗马公民支持。Antony接着演讲,改变了听众的看法,罗马市民转而对暗杀Caesar的人怒火万丈,他们马上逃出罗马。最后Antony等的军队打败了Brutus召集的军队,Brutus自杀。Antony等承认,Brutus是反对Caesar团伙中唯一正直的人,他参与谋杀,确实是为了罗马,而不是为了自己。

This was the noblest Roman of them all;

All the conspirators save only he

Did that they did in envy of great Caesar;

He only, in a general honest thought

And common good to all, made one of them.

His life was gentle, and the elements

So mix'd in him that Nature might stand up

And say to all the world, ‘This was a man!’ (V2: 216-213)

 

剧本中,安葬Caesar时的演讲很有意思。主旨爱Caesar但更爱罗马,为了捍卫罗马的共和,只能杀掉想称王的CaesarBrutus的演讲有逻辑的力量,修辞也华丽,结尾如下

Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more. Had you rather Caesar were living, and die all slaves, than that Caesar were dead, to live all free men? As Caesar loved me, I weep for him; as he was fortunate, I rejoice at it; as he was valiant, I honour him; but, as he was ambitious, I slew him. There is tears for his love; joy for his fortune: honour for his valour; and death for his ambition. Who is here so base that would be a bondman? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so rude that would not be a Roman ? If any, speak; for him have I offended. Who is here so vile that will not love his country? If any, speak; for him have I offended. I pause for a reply. (III2: 21-34)

虽然在论证Caesar有称帝野心时证据并不充分。但罗马群众都没有注意到这个问题,而致以热烈欢迎。Antony的演讲更侧重利用群众的情感,除了说Caesar的贡献外,特别提到Caesar的遗嘱赠每位市民笔钱,他的私人住宅可以作为公共花园。结果也更成功,改变了群众的看法。演讲实在太长,我就不抄了。

 

剧本最引人注目的是对命运的讨论。Cassius强调命运掌握在自己手中,居于人下错在自己而非命运

Men at some time are masters of their fates:

The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars,

But in ourselves, that we are underlings. (I2: 135-137)

Caesar觉得命运无处逃避

                                   What can be avoided

Whose end is purpos'd by the mighty gods? (II2: 27-28)

因此不妨直面死亡。

Cowards die many times before their deaths;

The valiant never taste of death but once.

Of all the wonders that I yet have heard,

It seems to me most strange that men should fear;

Seeing that death, a necessary end,

Will come when it will come. (II2: 33-37)

她妻子对这种自信表示忧虑,觉得会把他弄糊涂。

Your wisdom is consum'd in confidence. (II2: 49)

还有Brutus对命运的看法,我在《命运如潮》中抄过,时不我待,乘势而上。

There is a tide in the affairs of men,

Which, taken at the flood, leads on the fortune;

Omitted, all the voyage of their life

Is bound in shallows and in miseries.

On such a full sea are we now afloat,

And we must take the current when it serves

Or lose our ventures. (IV3: 216-222)

 

此外,Caesar对行刺的主谋Cassius的看法也耐人寻味,为阴谋家画幅速写。博览群书,洞悉人性,很少娱乐,不苟言笑,心胸狭隘。

He reads much;

He is a great observer, and he looks

Quite through the deeds of men; he loves no plays,

As thou dost, Antony; he hears no music;

Seldom he smiles, and smiles in such a sort

As if he mock'd himself, and scorn'd his spirit

That could be mov'd to smile at any thing.

Such men as he be never at heart's ease

Whiles they behold a greater than themselves,

And therefore are they very dangerous. (I2: 197-206)

 

Julius Caesar是历史剧,剧情主要出自普鲁塔克《名人传》。Caesar其实并非是剧中的主要人物,主要人物是被推举为行刺Caesar小团伙的首领Brutus,以及在为Caesar复仇名义下攫取最高权力的Antony。三人在《名人传》中都有专门传记。Caesar的最为正面,与亚历山大并列为“继往开来者”,我理解就是大征服者。Brutus则是在弑杀君父者,虽然对他个人道德操守还是有好评;而Antony更是因美色而亡者,对他个人品质评价也不高。这三位的传记我准备以后阅读一下。




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