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ICES 浮游动物手册 目录(7—10章)

已有 4557 次阅读 2012-5-31 21:13 |系统分类:人文社科| 手册, 浮游动物, ICES

7.1 Introduction

7.2 General discussion of principles, techniques and comparative approaches


-Basic principles

-Light phenomena


-Water as an optical medium

-Light detection

-Magnification and resolution

-Sources of variability

-Instrument effects

-Water medium

-Animal-dependent effects

-Classes of light microscopy


-Bright – field microscopy

-Contrast techniques

-Fluorescence microscopy



-Silhouette photography

-Optical plankton counting

-Video plankton recording



-Imaging versus quantification

-Venue and deployment

-Operating range of two systems

7.3 Measurement protocols, model computations and examples

-Silhouette photography in the laboratory


-Further processing of the film

-Optical plankton counter

-Calibration including comparisons


-Operating scenario


-Video plankton recorder

-Calibration including comparisons


-Operating scenario


7.4 Acknowledgements

7.5 Refrences

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Feeding mechanisms of zooplankton

8.3 Expression of zooplankton feeding rates and common conversion factors

-Clearance rate (F)

-Ingestion rate (I)

-Daily ration (DR)

-Conversion between units of mass and energy

8.4 Microzooplankton

-Methodological approaches

-Indirect methods to measure assemblage grazing

-Correlation of natural consumer-prey cycles

-Extrapolation of laboratory rates to the field

-The pigment budget

-Acid lysozyme assay

-Direct methods to measure per capita grazing rates

-Food tracers: inert particles

-Food tracers: prey cells

-Food tracers: radioisotopes

-Food vacuole contents

-Prey removal

-Direct methods to measure assemblage grazing rates

-Sea water dilution method

-Working procedures for the sea water dilution method

-Size fractionation method

-Metabolic inhibitor method

8.5 Meso- and macrozooplankton

-Empirical relationships

-Field investigations on gut fluorescence


-Preparation for analysis

-Gut clearance coefficient

-Sorting animals


-Pigment analysis

-Transformation to carbon

-Pigment destruction

-Working procedures for the gut fluorescence method




-Measurement and calculations

-Comments and special precautions

-Gut contents of field sampled consumers

-General procedures

-Special case: copepod mandibles in stomach contents


-Methods based on budgets of material or energy





-Assimilation efficiency

-Measurement of assimilation efficiency: direct measurements

-Measurement of assimilation efficiency: indirect calculation

-Measurement of assimilation efficiency: ratio methods

-Non-homogeneous food material

-Food selectivity

-Sloppy feeding

-Losses from faecal material

-Absorbance of IT in the digestive tract

-Production of non faecal material mixed with faeces

-Ash-ratio method

-Chlorophyll –ratio method

-Silica-ratio method

-Radioisotope tracers

-Methodological comparisons

-Working procedure for laboratory experiments with radioisotopes

-Working procedure for field experiments

-Food removal methods

-Bottle effects during incubations

-Sloppy feeding

-Estimates of community grazing rate

-Working procedures with food removal methods

-Collection of zooplankton

-The food source



-Microscopic examination of sub-samples

-Feeding rate calculations

-Use of film and video to study feeding behaviour

-Biochemical indices

-Working procedures for measurement of digestive enzyme activity



8.6 Difficulties with specific zooplankton groups

-Stomach contents from field samples

-Laboratory experiments

8.7 Omnivory

-A general method to estimate omnivory

-Collection of consumers

-Collection and handling of water

-Sample collection, processing and analysis

-Data analysis

-Gut fluorescence and experimental egg production

-Gut fluorescence and egestion rate

-A method to estimate the importance of copepod prey for predators

8.8 Factors regulating feeding rate

-Abundance of food items

-Functional response. Model I

-Functional response. Model II

-Functional response. Modified model II

-Functional response. Model III

-Design of functional response experiments

-Calculation curve fits in functional response experiments

-Size of food items


-Consumer body size

-Palatability / toxicity of food organisms

-Physical environmental factors



-Spatial constraints

8.9 Predation behavioural models

8.10 Concluding remarks

8.11 Acknowledgments

8.12 References

9.1 Introduction: why to measure growth and reproductive rates of zooplankton ?

-Factors controlling the dynamics of copepod populations

-Variability in the production of the prey field for fish larvae

-The influence of food availability on growth and egg laying rates, including the linkage between copepod spawning and primary production cycles

-Evaluation of environmental impacts

-Estimation of secondary production

9.2 Models of growth and fecundity

-Physiological or laboratory – derived budgetary models

-Temperature – dependent empirical model

-Global model of in – situ weight – specific growth

9.3 Determination of egg production rate: broadcast spawning copepods

-The basic method

-Procedures: know your species

-Capture and handling

-Duration of incubation

-Incubation containers and density of females


-Light regime

-Food supply

-Statistical considerations

-Estimation of spawning frequency from preserved samples

-Egg viability

9.4 egg production rates of egg carrying copepods

-Egg ratio method

-Incubation method

9.5 The determination of growth rate

-Estimation of growth rate from preserved samples and demographic information

-Estimation of development time

-Estimation of mean weight

-Limitations and sources of error

-Direct measurements of growth rate

-The basic method


9.6 Biochemical and radiochemical methods

-Ratio of biochemical quantities

-Hormones and growth factors

-Enzyme activities

-Radiochemical methods

-In vitro incorporation

-In vivo uptake

-In vivo injection

-In vivo ingestion

9.7 Measurement of egg production rate of a marine planktonic copepod (Calanus finmarchicus)


-Equipment and supplies



-Sorting the catch


-Data analysis

9.8 Direct determination of copepod molting and growth rates in the field

-Facilities and equipment



-“Artificial cohort method”

-“Sorting method”

-Data analysis and interpretation

-Molting rates

-Growth rates

-Notes and comments

-Creation of artificial cohorts: alternative techniques

-Changing the water

9.9 Acknowledgements

9.10 References


10.1 Oxygen consumption as an index of metabolism

-Conversion of oxygen to carbon and calorific units

10.2 Nitrogen and phosphorous metabolism

10.3 Measuring metabolic rate on live zooplankton

-Technical problems

-Body size and temperature as bases of metabolic comparison

-Metabolic quotients

10.4 Metabolic rate and enzymatic indices

-ETS activity

-Enzymes of intermediary metabolism

-Potential sources of error

10.5 Concluding remarks


10.6 Collection and handling of zooplankton

10.7 Respiration

-Oxygen consumption – Winkler titration

-Oxygen consumption – electrodes

-Enzymatic method – electron transfer system

-Enzymatic method – lactate deshydrogenase and citrate synthase

10.8 Excretion

-Single end-point method

-Time course method

-Ammonia and inorganic phosphate analysis

10.9 References


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