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亚里士多德Aristotle 的优缺点 【关于运动 motion】

已有 1378 次阅读 2022-7-31 21:15 |系统分类:科普集锦

image.png 图1. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.)

image.png图2

 

image.png图3a

 

image.png图3b

 

Aristotle: Motion

 

Aristotle’s account of motion and its place in nature can be found in the Physics. By motion, Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) understands any kind of change. He defines motion as the actuality of a potentiality. Initially, Aristotle’s definition seems to involve a contradiction. However, commentators on the works of Aristotle, such as St. Thomas Aquinas, maintain that this is the only way to define motion.

 

Aristotle’s definition of motion applies to any and every motion: the pencil falling to the floor, the white pages in the book turning yellow, the glue in the binding of the book being eaten by insects. Maimonides, Averroes, and Ross, who say that motion is always a transition or passage from potentiality to actuality, must call the being-on-the-floor of the pencil, the being-yellow of the pages, and the crumbled condition of the binding of the book actualities. Thomas, who says that motion is constituted at any moment by the joint presence of actuality and potentiality, is in a still worse position: he must call every position of the pencil on the way to the floor, every color of the pages on the way to being yellow, and every loss of a crumb from the binding an actuality. If these are actualities, then it is no wonder that philosophers such as Descartes rejected Aristotle’s account of motion as a useless redundancy, saying no more than that whatever changes, changes into that into which it changes.

 

参考链接:

https://iep.utm.edu/aristotle-motion/#:~:text=Aristotle%E2%80%99s%20account%20of%20motion%20and%20its%20place%20in,defines%20motion%20as%20the%20actuality%20of%20a%20potentiality.

 

 

运动有5种形式:

  • 第一个叫 机械运动

  • 第二个叫 物理运动

  • 第三个叫 化学运动

  • 第四个叫 生命运动

  • 第五个叫 社会运动

这是五种运动形式,按顺序越来越复杂。

机械运动:指的是物体的位移。从a点到b点的位移运动。

物理运动:指分子、电子和其他基本粒子的运动,它的物质基础是分子、电子、基本粒子和场等。

化学运动:是指物体的化学变化,化学变化和物理变化有一个根本的区别就是分子结构改变了。比如,冰化成水是物理运动,那水通过电电解成氢气和氧气,这个就是化学运动了,分子结构改变了;还有我们蒸蛋糕,一开始面粉鸡蛋,啪,从烤箱里很快就出来了一个蛋糕。

生命运动:就更复杂了,人体有消化系统、内分泌系统、循环系统等等,这些系统的变化便是生命运动。

社会运动:社会运动最复杂了,它包括生产力与生产关系的矛盾运动,经济基础与上层建筑的矛盾运动。都说人心复杂,没有再比人复杂的了。

作者:ZealReal
链接:https://www.zhihu.com/question/430888981/answer/1735700788

Basic Forms Of Motion Of Matter

 

  • Physical development.

  • Chemical development.

  • Mechanical.

  • Biological.

  • Social.

https://en.birmiss.com/basic-forms-of-motion-of-matter/

 

Aristotle的评价:

Aristotle是伟大的、杰出的哲学家和科学家。他也有缺点。受时代限制,在物理学(physics)方面,Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E.) 对物质运动(motion)的认识是粗浅的、模糊的。自然界的五种运动形式:Physical developmentChemical developmentMechanicalBiologicalSocial,他没有分开来讲。比如the pencil falling to the floor, the white pages in the book turning yellow, the glue in the binding of the book being eaten by insects.都是Aristotle要定义的运动。想把机械运动、化学运动、生物运动这三种明显不同的运动综合起来统一成唯一的解释(account of motion),把motion这一问题复杂化了。所以没有讲清楚。机械运动mechanical motion 的总结需要数学语言Aristotle的时代无法做到,当时还没有出现微积分。

上面的中学教材(人教版)只讲Aristotle的优点不同时提到缺点,易引起误解,以为Aristotle的时代已经充分地了解了运动、了解了自然。(见图3a名言“不了解运动,就不了解自然---亚里士多德”)




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