caozhiyuan的个人博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/caozhiyuan

博文

一本科普著作中的若干翻译略评

已有 903 次阅读 2021-11-8 11:49 |系统分类:科研笔记


最近粗略地阅读了湖南某出版社的一本数学科普译作 (似乎是2019年出的,具体书名就不说了),有些地方译得似乎有些问题,所以特意查阅了一下英语原著。

 

由于这些内容可能会引起对初学者的误导,兹选录部分段落如下,以相同的颜色标注了中译与英文差异较大的部分,并略加说明。

 

需要声明的是,由于笔者所看的是京东电子版,并不知道它是否与纸质版内容相同,希望只是电子版的误录。如果纸质版也是这样,希望出版社能够修订一下。

 

(排版有点糟糕,后面有PDF版,笔者不大习惯用word)


原文 Thales also addressed the concept of physical space. He recognized that all matter in the world, despite its vast variety, must be intrinsically the same stuff. In the absence of any evidence, it was an amazing leap of intuition. The next natural question was, of course, what is this fundamental stuff? Here, living in a city of harbors, intuition led Thales to choose water. Ironically, Thales’ student and fellow Milesian, Anaximander, came by a comparable leap of intuition to the idea of evolution, and for the lower animal from which humans evolved, chose the fish.

 

中译 泰利斯还谈到了物理空间的概念。他认识到,世界上所有的物质,尽管种类繁多,但本质上是一样 的东西。在没有任何证据的情况下,这是一种惊人的直觉跳跃。很自然地,下一个问题就是,这基本的东西是什么?生活在港口城市,直觉让泰利斯选择水作为基本元素。具有讽刺意味的是,泰利斯的学生 Milesian 和他的同伴Anaximander他们的直觉来自于人类从低等动物进化而来的进化论观点从而选择鱼作为基本元素

 

简评 泰勒斯是米利都哲学家 (西方哲学家的鼻祖),阿那克西曼德是是泰勒斯的米利都同乡 (fellow Milesian)

 

    阿那克西曼德 (不是他们) 直觉跳跃出了进化观念,并认为人是由低等的鱼进化来的

 

    ~~~~ 翻译欧洲科学史或数学史书籍,对欧洲哲学史和数学史还是要有一个最基本的了解。上面的中译让笔者满脑子都是鱼......

 



原文 The life and legend that developed around Pythagoras in many ways parallels that of a later charismatic leader, Jesus Christ. It is hard to believe that the myths told about Pythagoras did not influence the creation of some of the later stories about Christ. Pythagoras, for instance, was believed by many to be the son of God, in this case, Apollo.

 

中译 毕达哥拉斯的生活传奇得以传播,许多方法与后来有超凡能力的领袖耶稣相似。很难说关于毕达哥拉斯的神话传说没有影响到后来关于基督故事的创作。例如毕达哥拉斯,很多人相信他是上帝之子,在基督的故事中,上帝之子是阿波罗

 

   简评 毕达哥拉斯被认为是 God 之子,这个 God 是指阿波罗,这里 God 翻译为“神”会好一些,因为希腊神话没有唯一上帝的观念,而且奥林匹斯主神之首是宙斯。

 

    ~~~~ 翻译欧洲科学史或数学史书籍,对欧洲神话史和宗教史可能也要有一个最基本的了解。因为西方科学与宗教是紧密关联的。



 

原文 Oresme also applied his graphical reasoning to invent a law usually attributed to Galileo: that the distance covered by an object under uniform acceleration grows with the square of the time. To see this, consider again the right triangle that is the area under the graph describing uniform acceleration. Its area is proportional to the product of its base and its height,both of which are proportional to time.

 

In his understanding of the nature of space, Oresme’s instincts were equally astounding. Another scoop he got on Galileo was a component of Einstein’s doctrine of relativity. It is the doctrine that only relative motion has meaning.

 

中译 奥雷斯姆还用图形化推理方法发现了一个定律,但该定律通常归功于伽利略:匀加速物体走过的距离随时间的平方而增长。为了理解这个定律,再次考虑表示匀加速运动的直角三角形,其面积与其底和高的乘积成正比,而底和高都与时间成正比。

 

在理解空间性质时,奥雷斯姆的直觉同样令人震惊。他从伽利略身上获得的另一个灵感是爱因斯坦相对论学说的组成部分。那就是,只有相对的运动才有意义。

 

简评 该书前文说奥雷姆是 14 世纪的人。而伽利略是 1617 世纪的人,这是科学史中的常识。



 

原文 Despite that realization, at his father’s wish, he spent the next two years engaged in more pointless learning, this time leading to a law degree.

 

Descartes finally abandoned the study of letters and moved to Paris. There, he spent his nights prowling the social circuit. By day, he lay in bed studying mathematics (beginning, of course, in the afternoon). He loved it, and it also occasionally brought him profit, as he applied his mathematics at the gambling tables. After a short time, though, Paris bored him.

 

中译 尽管如此,为了遵从父愿,他在接下来的两年里仍然从事了更多无意义的学习,这让他获得了法学学位。

笛卡儿最终放弃了对文学的研究,搬到了巴黎。在那里,他夜晚忙于社交,白天躺在床上学习数学(当然,开始于下午)。他喜欢数学,偶尔也得益于数学,因为他可以把数学应用在赌桌上。没几日,巴黎的社交圈就厌倦他了

 

   简评 letters在此当指法律文书而非文学,因为前一段讲笛卡儿学习法律。

 

       Paris bored him,谁厌倦了谁?不也解笛卡儿的年轻读者,可能会因此而以为他是个大恶棍。

 

  ~~~~ 如果英语不是特别好懂,通过上下文和逻辑分析有可能优化译文。

 



原文 Euclid didn’t use the parallel postulate at all in proving his first twenty-eight theorems. By then he had already proven the converse of the postulate, as well as other statements that seemed far better candidates for ”axiomhood”-like the fundamental fact that the lengths of any two sides of a triangle have to add up to more than the length of the third.

 

中译 欧几里得并没有使用平行公设来证明他最初的 28 个定理。到那时,他已经证明了平行公设的反面 ,并且有了比“公理”一词更好的陈述方式,类似于“一个三角形的任何两边长度相加必然大于第三边的长度”这样的基本事实。

 

   简评 converse 是逆命题,这是基本的数学术语。翻译成反面也勉强也可以接受。

 

           other statements that seemed far better candidates for ”axiomhood”,意指看着更像、更适合作为公理的其他命题。作者这里是在讲,为什么欧几里得对第五公设的选择会让“几乎让每一位研究欧几里得的学者都感到惊讶”。

 

  


   原文 A couple hundred years after Ptolemy, Proclus Diadochus made the next notable attempt to prove the postulate once and for all.

 

中译 托勒密之后的几百年里,普罗克洛斯·迪多科斯(Proclus Diadochus)做出了下一个值得注意的尝试,彻底证明了平行公设

 

   简评 谁也没有证明过平行公设。如果读者认真的话,这个对初学者的误导有点大了。

 



原文 GAUSS would not be considered one of the greatest mathematicians ever had he not had a deep influence on many fields of mathematics. Yet he is sometimes considered a transitional figure, capping the developments started by Newton rather than laying the groundwork for future generations. This is not true of his work on the geometry of space: it was the kind of work that would eventually keep mathematicians and physicists busy for a century. Only one thing stood in the way of his revolution. He kept his work secret.

 

中译 高斯本不会是有史以来最伟大的数学家之一,因为他对数学的许多领域并没有很深的影响。然而,他有时被认为是一个过渡性人物,限制了从牛顿开始的发展,而不是为后代奠定基础。其实他在空间几何学方面的研究并不是这样的:他的工作最终让数学家和物理学家们忙碌了一个世纪。只有一件事阻碍了他的革命性发展。他把工作保密。

 

  简评 这样说一个有史以来至少排名前五的数学家,似乎不太好吧?

 

   第一句话GAUSS......是虚拟语气。

 

         capping 应该是类似于“封顶”的意思。

  



原文 In 1899, Hilbert, who did not know of Peano’s work, gave his first version of the formu-lation of geometry that is most accepted today.

 

Hilbert was utterly dedicated to clarifying the foundations of geometry (and later also helped develop Einstein’s general theory of relativity). He revised his formulation many times before his death in 1943.

 

中译 1899 年,希尔伯特在不知道皮诺的工作的情况下,给出了第一个版本的几何学公式,也是如今最为广泛接受的版本。

 

希尔伯特完全致力于阐明几何学的基础(这后来也促成爱因斯坦广义相对论的发展)。他在 1943 年去世前多次修改公式的陈述方式。

 

简评 the formulation of geometry 显然是指希尔伯特的几何公理系统而不是几何学公式,也就是指他 1899 年出版的 the foundations of geometry 的几何公理化方案。该书有中译本。

 

        and later also helped develop Einstein’s general theory of relativity的主语是 Hilbert,而不是希尔伯特致力于阐明的“几何学的基础”。

 

  ~~~~ 科普著作的翻译过程中如果遇到自己不太熟悉的内容,简单查阅一下资料还是必要的。


本文PDF版.pdf





https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-3475840-1311457.html


下一篇:略谈国内高中数学所谓分析法和综合法

5 尤明庆 曹长青 史晓雷 孙冰 杨正瓴

该博文允许注册用户评论 请点击登录 评论 (1 个评论)

数据加载中...

Archiver|手机版|科学网 ( 京ICP备07017567号-12 )

GMT+8, 2022-6-25 12:54

Powered by ScienceNet.cn

Copyright © 2007- 中国科学报社

返回顶部