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Current Biology:土沉香模拟植物防御气味吸引胡蜂帮助快速传播种子

已有 556 次阅读 2022-7-2 23:35 |个人分类:每日摘要|系统分类:论文交流

Plant-defense mimicry facilitates rapid dispersal of short-lived seeds by hornets

第一作者Rui-Min Qin

第一单位中科院西双版纳热带植物园

第一通讯Jin Chen


 Abstract

存在问题Rates of seed dispersal have rarely been considered important. 


主要发现Here, we demonstrate through field observations and experiments that rapid dispersal is essential for the unusually short-lived seeds of Aquilaria sinensis (agarwood; Thymelaeaceae), which desiccate and die within hours of exposure by fruit dehiscence in the hot, dry forest canopy in tropical southwest China. 


结果1-胡蜂帮助快速传播种子We show that three species of Vespa hornets remove most seeds within minutes of exposure. The hornets consume only the fleshy elaiosomes and deposit most seeds in damp shade, where they can germinate, a mean of 166 m from the parent tree. 


结果2-果实挥发性气味吸引胡蜂Electrophysiological assays and field experiments demonstrate that the hornets are attracted by highly volatile short-carbon-chain (C5–C9) compounds, including aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and acids, emitted from the dehiscent fruit capsule. 


结果3-果实模拟虫食叶片气味These attractive fruit volatiles share 14 of 17 major electrophysiologically active compounds with those emitted from herbivore-damaged leaves, which attract predators, including hornets. 


结论Rapid seed dispersal thus appears to have been achieved in this species by the re-purposing of a rapid indirect defense mechanism. We predict that rapid seed dispersal by various mechanisms will be more widespread than currently documented and suggest that volatile attractants are more effective in facilitating this than visual signals, which are blocked by vegetation. 


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 摘 要 

种子的传播速度很多时候都被认为是不重要的。本文中,作者通过实地观察和实验发现,快速传播对于中国西南热带地区的土沉香的短寿命种子来说十分重要,土沉香的种子在果实开裂后暴露于干燥、炎热的森林冠层,在数个小时内就会失去活力、直至死亡。作者发现,大胡蜂属的3种胡蜂能够在土沉香种子暴露的几分钟内,移走大部分的种子。胡蜂只会消耗肉质的油脂体,并将大多数种子移至距离母树平均166m的潮湿阴凉处,在那里这些土沉香的种子可以发芽。电生理分析和野外实验表明,胡蜂会被开裂后果实所释放的高挥发性短碳链化合物所吸引,这些C5–C9的化合物包括了醛、酮、醇和酸。这些开裂果实所释放出的挥发性化合物与17种遭食草动物啃噬后受损叶片释放出的具电生理活性化合物中的14种重合,这些化合物会吸引包括胡蜂在内的食肉动物。因此,土沉香通过重新利用自身的一种快速间接防御机制,实现了种子的快速传播。最后,作者提出植物实现快速传播种子的机制要远比目前文献记载的更为多样,而且在这一过程中,挥发性的气味要比易被植被阻挡的视觉信号更为高效。




 陈进 


个人简介:

1982-1986年,南京农业大学,学士;

1999-2003年,中科院昆明植物研究所,博士。


研究方向:动植物相互作用。


doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2022.06.034


Journal: Current Biology

Published date: June 30, 2022


Cite:
Rui-Min Qin, Ping Wen, Richard T. Corlett, Yuanye Zhang, Gang Wang, Jin Chen. Plant-defense mimicry facilitates rapid dispersal of short-lived seeds by hornets. Current Biology, 2022. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2022.06.034​




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