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科学家推翻了物理学的基本原理 精选

已有 3941 次阅读 2024-3-11 17:40 |个人分类:新观察|系统分类:科普集锦




A new study has overturned a fundamental principle of physics by demonstrating that similarly charged particles can attract each other in a solution, with the effect varying between positive and negative charges depending on the solvent. This discovery has significant implications for various scientific processes, including self-assembly and crystallization. The research reveals the importance of solvent structure at the interface in determining interparticle interactions, challenging long-held beliefs and indicating a need for a re-evaluation of our understanding of electromagnetic forces. Credit: Zhang Kang

据英国牛津大学(University of Oxford, Oxford, UK202439日提供的消息,该校研究人员与英国牛津卡夫利纳米科学发现研究所(The Kavli Institute for Nanoscience Discovery, Oxford, UK)的研究人员合作发现,并非异性相吸,同性相斥。他们推翻了物理学的基本原理(Opposites Attract, Likes Repel? Scientists Overturn Fundamental Principle of Physics)。

异性电荷相吸,同种电荷相斥是基础物理学的一个基本原理。然而,牛津大学与卡夫利纳米科学发现研究所的研究人员合作的研究结果表明,溶液中类似的带电粒子实际上可以在长距离上相互吸引。相关研究结果于202431日已经在《自然纳米技术》(Nature Nanotechnology)杂志网站发表——Sida WangRowan Walker-GibbonsBethany WatkinsMelissa FlynnMadhavi Krishnan. A charge-dependent long-ranged force drives tailored assembly of matter in solution. Nature Nanotechnology, 2024. DOI: 10.1038/s41565-024-01621-5. Published: 01 March 2024. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41565-024-01621-5 


牛津大学化学系(Oxford’s Department of Chemistry)的研究小组发现,带负电荷的粒子在大距离内相互吸引,而带正电荷的粒子相互排斥,而醇类溶剂的情况正好相反。这些发现令人惊讶,因为它们似乎与中心电磁原理(central electromagnetic principle)相矛盾,即相同符号的电荷之间的力在所有距离上都是相斥的。

试验观察(Experimental Observations

现在,利用明视场显微镜Bright Field Microscopy),研究小组追踪了悬浮在水中的带负电荷的二氧化硅微粒,发现这些微粒相互吸引,形成六边形排列的簇。然而,带正电的胺化二氧化硅颗粒(aminated silica particles)在水中不会形成团簇。



溶剂特异性效应和进一步的发现(Solvent-Specific Effects and Further Discoveries



领导这项研究的牛津大学化学系马德哈维·克里希南教授(Prof. Madhavi Krishnan):“我真的为我的两个研究生和本科生感到骄傲,他们共同努力,推动了这一基本发现。”

该研究的第一作者、牛津大学化学系的王思达(Sida Wang音译)说:“我仍然觉得看到这些粒子相互吸引很有趣,即使我已经看过一千遍了。”

本研究得到了欧洲研究理事会(European Research Council简称ERC) 在欧盟地平线2020研究和创新计划项目(ERC under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme number 724180)的资助。



The interaction between charged objects in solution is generally expected to recapitulate two central principles of electromagnetics: (1) like-charged objects repel, and (2) they do so regardless of the sign of their electrical charge. Here we demonstrate experimentally that the solvent plays a hitherto unforeseen but crucial role in interparticle interactions, and importantly, that interactions in the fluid phase can break charge-reversal symmetry. We show that in aqueous solution, negatively charged particles can attract at long range while positively charged particles repel. In solvents that exhibit an inversion of the net molecular dipole at an interface, such as alcohols, we find that the converse can be true: positively charged particles may attract whereas negatives repel. The observations hold across a wide variety of surface chemistries: from inorganic silica and polymeric particles to polyelectrolyte- and polypeptide-coated surfaces in aqueous solution. A theory of interparticle interactions that invokes solvent structuring at an interface captures the observations. Our study establishes a nanoscopic interfacial mechanism by which solvent molecules may give rise to a strong and long-ranged force in solution, with immediate ramifications for a range of particulate and molecular processes across length scales such as self-assembly, gelation and crystallization, biomolecular condensation, coacervation, and phase segregation.


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