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综述:防护林学研究现状与展望

已有 3799 次阅读 2013-9-26 08:03 |个人分类:防护林工程|系统分类:论文交流| 防护林学

防护林学研究现状与展望

 朱教1,2,3*

1中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所森林与土壤生态国家重点实验室, 沈阳110016;2辽宁省生态公益林经营管理重点实验室, 沈阳110016; 3中国科学院清原森林生态实验站, 沈阳110016

  防护林学是研究防护林构建及经营的理论与技术的科学, 其核心内容包括防护林构建理论与技术、防护林经营理论与技术和防护林效益评价。防护林学发展的终极目的是构建与经营防护林, 使其防护功能或生态服务功能高效、稳定并可持续。防护林学是偏重实用的应用基础学科, 其发展始终依托防护林工程建设需求, 特别是以国家运作方式开展的大型防护林工程建设, 对推动防护林学发展做出了巨大贡献。国外著名的防护林工程有美国大平原各州林业工程(罗斯福工程)前苏联斯大林改造大自然计划、日本的治山治水防护林工程和北非五国绿色坝跨国防护林工程等。围绕这些工程, 在防护林规划设计、树种选择、空间配置、造林方法, 结构、抚育、间伐、衰退机制与更新, 以及效益评价等各个方面开展了相关研究, 其中, 以效益评价及效益与结构的关系研究最为广泛与深入。中国幅员辽阔、自然条件复杂、森林资源相对匮乏且分布不均、自然环境恶劣, 对防护林的需求极大, 三北防护林体系建设工程启动以来,中国防护林建设规模已居世界首位, 防护林学在中国得到了长足发展,尤其在防护林经营理论与技术研究方面取得突破性进展。防护林学以效益评价为桥梁将防护林构建和经营组合在一起, 效益与结构的关系为防护林构建及现有防护林经营提供了科学依据。未来防护林学研究将以更广泛的生态公益林或防护性森林为对象, 在研究方法上将由以林分尺度为主向更微观和更宏观两个方向拓展; 在防护林构建方面, 仍以林学理论与技术为主体, 并重点与生态系统稳定性原理、景观生态学原理相结合, 开展防护林(体系)区域分异规划设计、营建理论与技术研究; 在防护林经营方面, 将以防护林衰退与恢复机制、带状防护林更新和非带状防护林近自然经营理论与技术为重点开展研究; 在效益评价方面, 将采用遥感等技术, 以防护林(体系)、大规模防护林建设的生态环境效应评价等为主要内容开展研究。

关键词  生态公益林, 防护林, 防护林构建, 防护林经营

A review of the present situation and futureprospect of science of protective forest

ZHU Jiao-Jun1,2,3*

1State Key Laboratory of Forest and Soil Ecology, Institute of Applied Ecology,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China; 2LiaoningKey Laboratory for Management of Non-commercial Forest, Shenyang 110016, China; 3Qingyuan Experimental Station of ForestEcology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China

Abstract

The science of protective forest includes the theories and technologiesof creating and managing (using, conserving, repairing and renewing) protectiveforests in a sustainable manner to meet the desired goals, needs, and valuesfor human benefits. This science is practiced in both plantations and naturalstands. Its major goal is to create and manage protective forests to continue asustainable benefit of protection for the objectives needed to be protected.The development of this science mostly depends on the requirements from thecreation of protective forests because it is a related science involving thepractice of growing and tending trees and the protective forests. It is anapplied art and a technology. The worldwide national-level ecologicalengineering projects, such as the Great Plains Shelterbelt Project (RooseveltEngineering) in USA, the Great Plan for the Transformation of Nature in theformer Soviet Union, the forestry and water conservation projects in Japan andthe Green Dam Engineering Project in the five countries of North Africa,promoted the development of the science of protective forest. The majoradvances in the science included planning and design, tree species selection,spatial arrangement, planting technologies, structure modeling, thinning andtending, decline and regeneration and benefit assessment. There is much moreliterature on benefit assessment than other aspects. In China, many areas are influenced by desertification,soil and water loss and windy climate, so protective forests have been createdwidely, especially the Three North Protective Forest Program (the Green GreatWall) initiated in the west of Northeast China, the north of North China and Northwest China. Therefore, the science of protectiveforest has developed greatly as well, especially with significant contributionsto management theory and techniques. The science of protective forest generallycontains a broad range of concerns on the theories and technologies in creatingand managing protective forests, which are linked by the benefit assessment. Infact, all forests, particularly non-commercial forests have protectivefunctions. The methods of studying protective forests range from the standscale to more microcosmic and to more macroscopic scales. With regard tocreation of protective forests, studies should be done on planning and designaccording to regional differentiation characteristics on the basis of ecosystemstability and landscape ecology. For managing protectiveforests, studies should include the decline mechanism, the near-naturalmanagement and the assessment of protective forests. Benefit assessment ofprotective forests will be conducted at a large scale with remote sensingtechnology.

Key words non-commercial forest, protective forest,protective forest establishment, protective forest management

 

发表于《植物生态学报》,综述全文:防护林学研究现状与展望.pdf

 



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