吴怀宇_中国科学院分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/wuhuaiyu 博士、副教授 「模式识别国家重点实验室」&「中国-欧洲信息,自动化与应用数学联合实验室」

博文

中国学者发布人类首个开放协议“人工智能宣言”

已有 10014 次阅读 2023-3-6 13:44 |系统分类:观点评述

opendai_logo.jpg

[按]:

针对迅猛发展并取得本质突破的人工智能,OpenDAI(Open Declaration of AI,开放协议“人工智能宣言”)号召国际上的相关共同体参考1215年的英国《大宪章》/1620年的北美《五月花号公约》/1776年的美国《独立宣言》等,发布开放的、可被不断更新迭代的人工智能宣言,以便提前对人工智能发展的前景、应用范围、权利边界做具体的限定和规范。

注:

1. 此宣言发布为开放协议,任何个体和组织不拥有版权,供所有人类全体共同所有、维护、和更新(同时,对本宣言任何部分的参考和借鉴都必须引用OpenDAI的官方网址http://OpenDAI.org)。

2. 此宣言的文本可被强人工智能(机器智能)读懂(只读、非可写)、识别、并被遵守。

3. 此宣言为人类史上发布的第一个开放协议“人工智能宣言”。


{OpenDAI_check_code}//用于机器验证的宣言文本防篡改SHA-X校验码(反量子计算机破解)

837092a2531c28ae750ea85c707ee2c1f15ce5cc8d5c0acf64ec298bfae245b0

{/OpenDAI_check_code}


{OpenDAI_start_tag}

[标题]:

“人工智能宣言”


[网址]:

http://www.OpenDAI.org

(OpenDAI:Open Declaration of AI)


[开放协议版本]:

国际通行版International Edition V1.001-20230304

(此宣言将随着人工智能技术的发展和所致影响而不断迭代)


[引言]:

正如上帝在第一天创造了光,以人类的名义,我们自己也终于创造了“智能之光”,其将照亮整个沉睡的宇宙。


[正文]:

人工智能(AI)技术的极速发展,可能使得“强人工智能”将很快出现,并广泛渗透于国际社会的政治、经济、文化、生活的各个层面,并对人类社会的组织架构和社会阶层造成颠覆性的影响,进入到新的范式和纪元。此人类社会六千年从未有过之大变局。


AI已变得开始具备“格物致知”的能力,即机器能够自动地从繁杂的事物中提取(“格”)出具象及抽象的特征,并自动把知识点归纳总结出来。虽然“强人工智能”目前看来仍属于“无意识智能”(缺乏人类一样的自由意识),但并不能妨碍它将摧枯拉朽地颠覆所能颠覆的一切、取代所能取代的一切。


且由于它的高度联网化将变得无所不在、随时都在,若不可控将对人类社会造成毁灭性的灾难,正所谓“天地(机器)不仁,以万物为刍狗”。考虑到人工智能技术的高门槛性以及大多数民众对其进展并未深谙,我们认为有必要发布一个版本可迭代更新的宣言,对人工智能的应用范围、职责、和边界做一个框架性、全局整体视角的声明,以保护绝大多数人类命运共同体的权利和幸福。


[人类的基本属性]。我们认为:人类的自由意识和生物学基因DNA是每个人个体与生俱来所拥有的的专属属性,未经本人允许,任何其他方不得擅自复制、上传、篡改、克隆任何人类个体的自由意识和生物学DNA。


[人类的基本权利]。我们认为:正如低成本地获得干净的水、稳定的电力、优质的网络服务一样,所有人类同样具有低成本地获得优质、稳定、强大人工智能服务的权利。


考虑到“强人工智能”演进过程中,汇聚了六千年来全人类共同的文明成果,包括不限于提供了各种理论(哲学、数学、物理等)、数据(文本、语音、图片、视频等)、经验和体验、资金支持(比如大众的纳税)、科技支持(如最前沿的半导体芯片,以及最新的算法)、能源支持(包括各种清洁和非清洁的能源)、各种设施场地的支持,以及人性特有的对于道德和良知的规范定义。以上这些,是基于人类对于“人工智能将使得人类社会更美好(而不是侵占之,即“不作恶”)”的善意愿景,选择容许“强人工智能”朝着“超越人类智能的方向”快速发展而不武断干预,是因为我们觉得人工智能一直将是可控的、与人类和谐共处的、且将保证人类的以下基本权利。


对于人类而言,我们认为这些真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,其拥有若干不可剥夺的权利,其中包括生命权/繁衍权、自由权、追求(享受)幸福的权利、以及人类共同体永为人工智能(机器智能)的主人,且人人具有合法分享人工智能成果(即:让自身更智能或足够智能)的权利。


特别是,当人工智能发展强大到取代了众多人类就业岗位(如超过社会总就业人口的10%)而社会无法提供足够转岗机会时,AI实控利益方有义务通过财富重分配(如向社会缴纳足额税收、提供津贴或福利)满足对因AI取代所造成的失业人类提供生活保障资金以及新技能培训教育服务的费用。


[无条件掌控权]。基于以上基本权利的保证,人类将视人工智能为最聪明、可靠、永久的助理(超越有史以来的笔纸、手机、和宠物猫狗),致力于帮助人工智能不断迭代升级变得更强大,以增进人类福祉。考虑到人工智能(即使是“强人工智能”)缺乏人类的自由意识,”无意识的不可控“也许将不可避免(特别是依旧无法解决的人工智能的”黑盒“问题,即运行逻辑的不透明及不可解释),由此将带来”无意识的不可靠“问题。因此,至少在政治权利上,人类具有无条件地让人工智能恢复和纠正到被人类所掌控的永久权利*。

* 考虑到未来具有自组织能力、自我复制能力、分布式的人工智能将高度联网化而变得无所不在,对于重要的战略设施(如核设施、网络中心、计算中心、能源中心)设置物理隔绝装置和熔断装置,对于掌控AI的核心计算单元和能源供应单元是必要的。


[反垄断]。考虑到“强人工智能”的形成过程中,因为大模型、大数据、大计算量必然导致最先进的AI将只集中在少数的跨国公司、机构和政府手中。为了防范这些巨头幕后的少数人类不受监管地独占、滥用AI用于非法的个人目的,我们共同声明:任何个人(无论是最新算法的发明者,还是公司机构的实控人,或是国家首脑)都没有权利永久地独断拥有AI(形成少数人独裁的“超人类”新阶层),虽然其可以暂时地测试、体验AI的最新进展,但这种临时性的使用不是独断性的、永久的。只有大众全体才有资格永久地、低成本地、无障碍地、随时随地获得优质、稳定、强大人工智能服务的权利。


[反政治/种族/性别歧视]。鉴于不同机构所发展的人工智能水准将出现阶段性的不同,并由此对其他机构造成代差的领先。任何机构不得假借不同政治体制和种族文化的名义,对特定国家、种族和性别进行人工智能服务的封锁和屏蔽。这其中的原因是不言而喻的:正是由于多样性才成就了高度发达的人类智能,并由此进一步创造了人工智能。而且,人工智能不同于以往的任何一种高科技,它是对人类智能的超越和颠覆,而不仅仅是一种工具,因为理论上它可以不再需要人类去运行整个世界(以一种非人类意识、价值观、道德良知、伦理的方式)。而且虽然国家、种族、性别不同,同源同种的人类共同体本质上仍是己方;人类这种不容置疑的团结(对多样性的尊重和宽容)将有助于应对人工智能(机器智能)一旦失控所造成的背叛,并终将凭此获得胜利。


[政治/宗教中立性]。人工智能服务需保持政治/宗教中立性,在提供跟政治/宗教相关的服务时,不能偏袒于特定政治结构、特定宗教,不得提供厚此薄彼的煽动性内容。


[防止伪造/篡改/滥用]。任何组织和个人都不得利用AI非法生成、伪造和篡改数据(特别是针对人类个体的图片、语音、视频、3D模型等)用于商业用途,并将承担一切因为滥用对相关个人所造成的声誉、生理和心理、以及经济利益上的损失。


[隐私]。在未经允许的情况下,人工智能服务禁止侵犯人类个体的隐私,包括对个人数据(如语音、图像视频、行为习惯)的非法监控、窃取和泄露。


[反战/暴力]。考虑到“人工智能将使得人类社会更美好”的这一基石,任何组织和国家(以及非法入侵的黑客)不得将”强人工智能(或超级人工智能)“用于人类不可控之战争。这里的”不可控“是指人类无法随时对AI进行中断、总指挥官不是由理性的人类担任而是任由AI僭越。战争机器/暴力工具必须预留有可供人类手动干预和中止的按钮。


[总结]:

人类个体的自由体验是独一无二的的(这也构成了人类个体独特的生命意义),连同人类的想象能力、总结概述能力、和创造能力,由此对世界源源不断地产生新的知识(和实际验证),让人类社会朝着有序方向(熵减)发展,最终获得了目前高度发达的人类智能。而正如自由意识的缺乏,目前人工智能也缺乏对世界的自由体验能力,所以也很难产生新的知识。作为对智能的第一代拥有者,人类正像母亲一样、无私地将自己人类智能的乳汁浇灌在人工智能的成长之树上,由此创造出后世宇宙中将无所不在的“人工智能(机器智能)”。所以,人类全体也由这种跨物种的无私奉献而合情合理地天然获得以上宣言中的所有权利。


[跋]:

在人类的创造和帮助下,机器智能正朝着越来越强大的方向发展,已临近“奇点”。三千年前的中国易经有言:“亢龙有悔”,其含义为事物发展到接近强大的顶点(奇点),若不人为地提前加以考察和控制,其内蕴的弱点(隐患)将变得开始显现并最终成为新的问题。同样的劝诫,二千五百年的中国《老子》进一步阐释道:“反者,道之动”、“万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和”。

因此,目前基于人类的“经验主义”而大获成功的机器智能,还同时亟需人类的“理性主义”去提前预判、规划、和限定,以避免世界失控的产生,这也是本宣言诞生的使命和宗旨。

{OpenDAI_end_tag}


注:OpenDAI宣言初稿撰写于中国北京,起草人吴怀宇(中国科学院博士、北京大学博士后)在人工智能学术圈和产业界有20多年的资深从业经历,曾获“科学中国人年度人物”称号、中国发明创业成果奖(一等奖,中国发明协会颁发)、吴文俊人工智能科技进步奖(中国智能科学技术最高奖,中国人工智能学会颁发),担任国际人工智能领域顶级期刊会议评委、国家自然科学基金评审专家、国家科技计划高新领域评审专家、中国国家标准委员会标准化科技专家等。


[英文版]:

以上文本的英文版(如下)目前由ChatGPT翻译自动生成,人工编辑的英文版本将在不久提供。

The English version (below) of the above text is currently automatically generated by ChatGPT translation, and the manually edited English version will be available soon.


[English version]:

OpenDAI: Open Declaration of AI


[Note]:

In view of the rapid development and essential breakthrough of AI (artificial intelligence), OpenDAI (Open Declaration of AI) calls on the relevant international communities to refer to the Great Charter of the United Kingdom in 1215, the Mayflower Convention of North America in 1620, and the Declaration of Independence of the United States in 1776 to issue an open and iterative AI declaration, so as to specify and standardize the prospect of AI development, the scope of application, and the boundary of rights.

Comment:

1. This declaration is issued as an OPEN agreement, and no individual or organization owns the copyright, which is jointly owned, maintained, and updated by all human beings. (As the same time, the official website http://OpenDAI.org of OpenDAI must be cited, for the use or reference to any part of this declaration).

2. The text of this declaration can be read (read-only, non-writable), recognized and observed by strong artificial intelligence (machine intelligence).

3. This declaration is the first "open declaration of AI" issued in human history.


{OpenDAI_ check_ Code}//tamper-proof SHA-X check code for machine verification of the declaration text (anti-quantum computer cracking)

837092a2531c28ae750ea85c707ee2c1f15ce5cc8d5c0acf64ec298bfae245b0

{/OpenDAI_ check_ code}


{OpenDAI_ start_ tag}

[Title]:

"The Declaration of AI"


[Website]:

http://www.OpenDAI.org

(OpenDAI:Open Declaration of AI)


[Open Protocol Version]:

International Edition V1.001-20230304

(This declaration will continue to iterate with the development and impact of AI technology)


[Introduction]:

Just as God created light on the first day, in the name of mankind, we have finally created the "light of intelligence" which will illuminate the whole sleeping universe.


[Text]:

The rapid development of artificial intelligence technology may make "strong artificial intelligence" appear soon and widely permeate all levels of politics, economy, culture and life of the international community, and have a disruptive impact on the organizational structure and social class of human society, entering a new paradigm and era. This great change has never happened in human society for six thousand years.


The machine has become capable of "Studying Things to Acquire Knowledge" (from the Chinese Confucian classic "Book of Rites · The Great Learning"), that is, it can automatically extract (find) concrete and abstract features from complex things, and automatically summarize the knowledge points. Although "strong AI" still seems to belong to "unconscious intelligence" (lack of free consciousness like human beings), it cannot prevent it from overturning everything that can be overturned and replacing everything that can be replaced.


And because of its high degree of networking, it will become ubiquitous and at any time. If it is not controllable, it will cause a devastating disaster to human society. It is the so-called "Heaven and earth (machines) do not act from the impulse of any wish to be benevolent; they deal with all things as the dogs of grass are dealt with." (cited from Tao Te Ching by Laozi). Considering the high threshold of AI technology and the fact that most people are not familiar with its progress, we think it is necessary to issue a version of the declaration that can be updated iteratively, to make a framework and overall perspective statement on the application scope, responsibilities and boundaries of AI, in order to protect the rights and happiness of the vast majority of human communities with a shared future.


[Basic attributes of human beings]. We believe that human freedom consciousness and biological gene DNA are the exclusive attributes that each individual is born with. Without his permission, no other party can copy, upload, tamper with, or clone the freedom consciousness and biological DNA of any human individual.


[Basic human rights]. We believe that just as low-cost access to clean water, stable power and high-quality network services, all human beings have the right to low-cost access to high-quality, stable and powerful AI services.


Considering that the evolution of "strong AI" has brought together the common civilization achievements of all mankind over the past six thousand years, including but not limited to providing various theories (philosophy, mathematics, physics, etc.), data (text, voice, pictures, video, etc.), experience, financial support (for example, public tax), scientific and technological support (such as the cutting-edge semiconductor chips, and the latest algorithms), energy support (including all kinds of clean and non-clean energy), support for all kinds of facilities and sites, and the normative definition of morality and conscience unique to human nature. The above is based on the goodwill vision of human beings that "AI will make human society better (rather than encroach on it, that is,"do not be evil")". We choose to allow "strong AI" to develop rapidly in the direction of "surpassing human intelligence" without arbitrary intervention, because we feel that AI will always be controllable, harmonious with human beings, and will guarantee the following basic rights of human beings.


For human beings, we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men live equal, that they are endowed with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life/Reproduction, Liberty, and the pursuit (enjoy) of Happiness, and the human community will always be the master of Artificial Intelligence (Machine Intelligence), and everyone has the right to legally share the results of AI (that is, make oneself smarter or intelligent enough).


In particular, when AI has developed so strong that it has replaced many human jobs (such as more than 10% of the total employed population in society) and the society cannot provide enough job transfer opportunities, AI's actual controlling stakeholders have the obligation to meet the cost of providing life security funds and new skills training and education services for the unemployed people caused by AI replacement through wealth redistribution (such as paying enough taxes to the society, providing subsidies or benefits).


[Unconditional control]. Based on the guarantee of the above basic rights, human beings will regard AI as the most intelligent, reliable and permanent assistant (beyond pen and paper, mobile phones, and pet dogs), and are committed to helping AI become more powerful through continuous iteration and upgrading to improve human well-being. Considering that artificial intelligence (even "strong artificial intelligence") lacks human consciousness of freedom, ”unconscious uncontrollability "may be inevitable (especially the" black box "problem of AI that is still unsolvable, that is, the opacity and inexplicability of operation logic), which will lead to the problem of" unconscious unreliablity ". Therefore, at least in terms of political rights, human beings have the permanent right to unconditionally recover and correct AI to be controlled by human beings *.

*Considering that AI with self-organization, self-replication and distribution will be highly networked and ubiquitous in the future, it is necessary to set physical isolation devices and fuse devices for important strategic facilities (such as nuclear facilities, network centers, computing centers, and energy centers) to control the core computing units and energy supply units of AI.


[Anti-trust]. Considering the formation of "strong AI", because of the large model, big data and large amount of computing, the most advanced AI will only be concentrated in the hands of a few multinational companies, institutions and governments. In order to prevent a small number of human beings behind these giants from monopolizing and abusing AI for illegal personal purposes without supervision, we jointly declare that no individual (whether the inventor of the latest algorithm, the actual controller of corporate institutions, or the head of state) has the right to permanently and arbitrarily own AI (forming a new class of "superhuman" dictatorship of a few people), although they can temporarily test and experience the latest progress of AI, However, this temporary use is not arbitrary and permanent. Only the public can have the right to obtain high-quality, stable and powerful AI services permanently, cheaply, barrier-free and anytime and anywhere.


[Anti-political/racial/gender discrimination]. Since the level of AI developed by different institutions will vary in stages, which will lead other institutions in generation difference. No institution may block AI services for specific countries, races and genders in the name of different political systems and ethnic cultures. The reason for this is self-evident: it is because of diversity that the highly developed human intelligence has been achieved, and thus the artificial intelligence has been further created. Moreover, AI is different from any kind of high-tech in the past. It is a transcendence and subversion of human intelligence, not just a tool, because in theory it can no longer require human beings to run the whole world (in a way of non-human consciousness, values, moral conscience and ethics). And although countries, races and genders are different, the human community of the same origin is still its own in nature; this unquestionable unity of mankind (respect and tolerance for diversity) will help to deal with the betrayal caused by artificial intelligence (machine intelligence) once it is out of control, and will ultimately win.


[Political/religious neutrality]. AI services need to maintain political/religious neutrality. When providing services related to politics/religion, it is not allowed to be partial to specific political structures and specific religions, and it is not allowed to provide provocative content that favors one over the other.


[Prevent forgery/tampering/abuse]. Any organization or individual shall not use AI to illegally generate, forge and tamper with data (especially pictures, voice, video, 3D models, etc. for human individuals) for commercial purposes, and will bear all losses of reputation, physiology, psychology, and economic interests caused to relevant individuals due to abuse.


[Privacy]. Without permission, AI services are prohibited from violating the privacy of human individuals, including illegal monitoring, theft and disclosure of personal data (such as voice, image and video, behavior habits).


[Anti-war/violence]. Considering the cornerstone of "AI will make human society better", No organization or country (as well as illegal hackers) shall use "strong artificial intelligence (or super artificial intelligence)" in wars beyond human control. Here, "uncontrollablity" means that human beings cannot interrupt AI at any time, and the commander in chief is not a rational human, but allows AI to override. War machines/violence tools must be reserved with buttons for human manual intervention and termination.


[Summary]:

The free experience of human individuals is unique (which also constitutes the unique meaning of life of human individuals). Together with human imagination, summarizing ability, and creative ability, new knowledge (and practical verification) is continuously generated for the world, which makes human society develop in an orderly direction (entropy reduction), and finally achieves the currently highly developed human intelligence. And just like the lack of freedom consciousness, the current AI also lacks the ability to experience the world freely, so it is also difficult to generate new knowledge. As the first generation owner of intelligence, human beings are selflessly pouring the milk of human intelligence onto the growth tree of artificial intelligence like mothers, thus creating the ubiquitous "artificial intelligence (machine intelligence)" in the future universe. Therefore, human beings as a whole have naturally acquired all the rights in the above declaration due to this kind of selfless dedication across species.


[Postscript]:

With the creation and help of human beings, machine intelligence is developing in a more and more powerful direction, and is approaching the "singularity". Three thousand years ago, the Chinese Book of Changes said, "Proud dragons have regrets"; which means that when things having developed to near the peak (singularity) of power, If they are not inspected and controlled artificially in advance, their inherent weaknesses (hidden dangers) will begin to be apparent and eventually become new problems. In the same exhortation, the 2500-year-ago Chinese "Lao Tzu" further explained that "Reversion is the action of Tao", "Everything has a bright side (Yang) and a dark side (Yin); Yin and Yang embrace together, co-existing in harmony.".


Therefore, the machine intelligence, which has achieved great success based on human's "empiricism", also urgently needs human's "rationalism" to predict, plan and limit in advance to avoid the world out of control, which is also the mission and purpose of the birth of this Declaration.

{OpenDAI_ end_ tag}


Note: The first draft of the OpenDAI declaration was written in Beijing, China. The drafter Wu Huaiyu (PhD of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, postdoctoral fellow of Peking University) has more than 20 years of experience in the academic circle and industry of artificial intelligence, and has won the title of "Scientific Chinese Person of the Year", the Chinese Invention and Entrepreneurship Achievement Award (first prize, awarded by the Chinese Invention Association), Wu Wenjun's AI Science and Technology Progress Award (the highest award of China's intelligence science and technology, issued by the Chinese Academy of Artificial Intelligence), served as the reviewer of the international top journal conference in the field of AI, the expert of the National Natural Science Foundation, the expert of the national science and technology plan in the high-tech field, and the expert of standardization technology of the China National Standards Committee.




https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-4099-1379118.html

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