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[小资料] 1952年杜默(G. W. A. Dummer)提出“集成电路概念 Integrated Circuit

已有 1151 次阅读 2023-8-2 15:47 |个人分类:集成电路(资料)|系统分类:科研笔记

[小资料] 1952年杜默(G. W. A. Dummer)提出“集成电路概念 Integrated Circuit Concept”

                         

Geoffrey William Arnold Dumme      Geoffrey-Dummer-Wikki-1361x2048.jpg

杜默 Geoffrey William Arnold Dummer,1909-02-25 ~ 2002-09-09

https://jablickar.cz/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Geoffrey-Dummer-Wikki-1361x2048.jpg

                         

   目前的主流观点:

   1952-5-05杜默(G. W. A. Dummer, Geoffrey William Arnold Dummer)在华盛顿特区举办的美国电子元件研讨会(the US Electronic Components Symposium)上宣读了一篇论文,首先提出了“集成电路概念 Integrated Circuit Concept”。

                                                  

一、 期刊《 Electrical Engineering》1953-02 的论文

   G. W. A. Dummer. Electronic components in Great Britain [J]. 1953, 72(2): 167 - 169.  February 1953

   doi:  10.1109/EE.1953.6438507

   https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6438507

   https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6438507

                      

Dummer 1953 集成电路概念截图 第 169 页上半页.png

图1  Dummer 1953 集成电路概念,第 169 页上半页截图

Dummer 1953 集成电路概念截图 第 169 页上半页(集成电路)_拉曲线.png

图2  Dummer 1953 集成电路概念,第 169 页上半页(集成电路)

                           

   对应的文字:

   Here we would like to look into the future. With the advent of the transistor and the work on semiconductors generally, it seems now possible to envisage electronic equipment in a solid block with no connecting wires. The block may consist of layers of insulating, conducting, rectifying, and amplifying materials, the electrical functions being connected directly by cutting out areas of the various layers.

   在这里,我们想展望未来。随着晶体管的出现和半导体的普遍研究,现在似乎可以将电子设备想象成一个没有连接线的实心块。块可以由绝缘、导电、整流和放大材料层组成,电功能通过裁剪不同层的区域直接连接。

                           

二、 宋德生. 信息革命的技术源流[M]. 成都: 四川人民出版社, 1986-04.

宋德生 第 165 页下部_拉曲线_小.png

图3  宋德生老师《信息革命的技术源流》第 165 页下部截图

宋德生 第 166 页上部_拉曲线小.png

图4  老师《信息革命的技术源流》第 166 页上部截图

                  

宋德生 第 188 页上部_拉曲线小.png

图5  宋德生老师《信息革命的技术源流》第 188 页上部截图

                                    

   杜麦本人因此一气之下离开了皇家雷达公司,“告老还乡”,去从事电子工业发展史研究去了。

                                    

三、 一些相关的网页

2.1  Computer History Museum, 2014-08-20, WHO INVENTED THE IC?

https://computerhistory.org/blog/who-invented-the-ic/

   1952, G. W. A. Dummer, a manager at the Telecommunications Research Establishment, in Malvern, England suggested that technology had advanced to the point that: “With the advent of the transistor and the work in semiconductors generally, it seems now possible to envisage electronic equipment in a solid block with no connecting wires.” Although Dummer’s own efforts took nearly a decade to bear fruit [1], other researchers did succeed in producing working devices in the years before 1958.

   【机器翻译】1952年,英国马尔文电信研究机构的经理G.W.A.Dummer表示,技术已经发展到这样一个地步:“随着晶体管的出现和半导体的普遍应用,现在似乎可以将电子设备想象成一个没有连接线的实心块。“尽管Dummer自己的努力花了近十年的时间才取得成果[1],但在1958年之前的几年里,其他研究人员确实成功地生产出了工作设备。

                                                         

2.2  Computer History Museum, May 5, 1952 Dummer Proposes Integrated Circuit Concept

https://www.computerhistory.org/tdih/may/5/

   May 5, 1952

   Dummer Proposes Integrated Circuit Concept

   G. W. A. Dummer, an English electrical engineer, foresees the fabrication of all electronic components of a circuit or system in a single block of semiconductor material. Several special-function devices were developed at Bell Labs and RCA before Jack Kilby at TI demonstrated a general-purpose concept "integrated circuit" in 1958.

   【机器翻译】1952年5月5日

   Dummer提出集成电路概念

   英国电气工程师G.W.A.Dummer预见到在一块半导体材料中制造电路或系统的所有电子部件。1958年,在TI的Jack Kilby展示了通用概念“集成电路”之前,贝尔实验室和RCA开发了几种特殊功能设备。

                                                         

2.3  COMPUTER TIMELINE, Geoffrey Dummer (integrated circuit)

http://www.computer-timeline.com/timeline/geoffrey-dummer-integrated-circuit/

   In 1952 Dummer presented at a conference in Washington, DC, a work, in which he states: “With the advent of the transistor and the work on semiconductors generally, it now seems possible to envisage electronic equipment in a solid block with no connecting wires. The block may consist of layers of insulating, conducting, rectifying and amplifying materials, the electronic functions being connected directly by cutting out areas of the various layers”. This is now generally accepted as the first public description of an integrated circuit.

   【机器翻译】1952年,Dummer在华盛顿特区的一次会议上发表了一篇作品,他在信中表示:“随着晶体管的出现和半导体的普遍研究,现在似乎可以将电子设备设想为一个没有连接线的实心块。该块可能由绝缘、导电、整流和放大材料层组成,电子功能通过切割各层的区域直接连接”。这现在被普遍接受为集成电路的第一公开描述。

                                                         

2.4  IT History Societym, Mr. Geoffrey William Arnold Dummer

https://www.ithistory.org/honor-roll/mr-geoffrey-william-arnold-dummer

   In May 1952 he read a paper at the US Electronic Components Symposium. At the end of the paper he made the statement: ?With the advent of the transistor and the work on semi-conductors generally, it now seems possible to envisage electronic equipment in a solid block with no connecting wires. The block may consist of layers of insulating, conducting, rectifying and amplifying materials, the electronic functions being connected directly by cutting out areas of the various layers?. This is now generally accepted as the first public description of an integrated circuit. At a later date he said, ?It seemed so logical to me; we had been working on smaller and smaller components, improving reliability as well as size reduction. I thought the only way we could ever attain our aim was in the form of a solid block. You then do away with all your contact problems, and you have a small circuit with high reliability. And that is why I went on with it. I shook the industry to the bone. I was trying to make them realize how important its invention would be for the future of microelectronics and the national economy.? This was some six years before Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments was awarded a patent for essentially the same idea. As a result he has been called "The Prophet of the Integrated Circuit". His ability to turn his idea of an integrated circuit into practical reality was restricted by his lack of responsibility for active devices and the lack of suitable manufacturing techniques.

   【机器翻译】1952年5月,他在美国电子元件研讨会上宣读了一篇论文。在论文的最后,他发表了以下声明:?随着晶体管的出现和半导体的普遍应用,现在似乎可以将电子设备想象成一个没有连接线的实心块。该块可能由绝缘、导电、整流和放大材料层组成,电子功能通过切割不同层的区域直接连接?。这现在被普遍接受为集成电路的第一公开描述。后来他说:?对我来说,这似乎很合乎逻辑;我们一直致力于开发越来越小的组件,以提高可靠性并缩小尺寸。我认为我们能达到目标的唯一方法就是用一个实心块的形式。然后你就消除了所有的接触问题,你就有了一个高可靠性的小电路。这就是我坚持下去的原因。我彻底震撼了这个行业。我试图让他们意识到它的发明对微电子和国民经济的未来有多么重要。?大约六年后,德州仪器公司的Jack Kilby就因为同样的想法获得了专利。因此,他被称为“集成电路的先知”。他将集成电路的想法转化为现实的能力受到了对有源器件缺乏责任感和缺乏合适制造技术的限制。

                                                         

2.5  WIRED, 2018-05-07, May 7, 1952: The Integrated Circuit ... What a Concept!

https://www.wired.com/2010/05/0507integrated-circuit-concept-published/

   __1952: __ British radar engineer Geoffrey Dummer introduces the concept of the integrated circuit at a tech conference in the United States. The world is about to change.

   "With the advent of the transistor and the work in semiconductors generally, it seems now possible to envisage electronic equipment in a solid block with no connecting wires," he told the audience at the conference, according to the Electronic Product News. "The block may consist of layers of insulating, conducting, rectifying and amplifying materials, the electronic functions being connected directly by cutting out areas of the various layers."

   Kilby found a solution in the summer of 1958. His idea was to make all the components and the chip out of the same block of semiconductor material, and layer the metal needed to connect them on top of it.

   Just a few months later, Robert Noyce, one of the co-founders of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel, solved some of the problems related to the interconnects, sharing the credit with Kilby for the practical IC.

   【机器翻译】

__1952年:__英国雷达工程师杰弗里·杜默在美国的一次技术会议上介绍了集成电路的概念。世界即将改变。

   据《电子产品新闻》报道,他在会议上对观众说:“随着晶体管的出现和半导体的普遍应用,现在似乎可以将电子设备想象成一个没有连接线的实心块。”。该块可以由绝缘、导电、整流和放大材料层组成,电子功能通过切割不同层的区域直接连接

   1958年夏天,基尔比找到了一个解决方案。他的想法是用同一块半导体材料制造所有的组件和芯片,并在其上铺设连接它们所需的金属层。

   仅仅几个月后,Fairchild Semiconductor 和 Intel 的联合创始人之一 Robert Noyce 就解决了一些与互连相关的问题,并与Kilby分享了实用IC的功劳。

                              

参考资料:

[1] G. W. A. Dummer. Electronic components in Great Britain [J]. 1953, 72(2): 167 - 169.  February 1953

doi:  10.1109/EE.1953.6438507

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/6438507

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=6438507

[2] 宋德生. 信息革命的技术源流[M]. 成都: 四川人民出版社, 1986-04.

                              

相关链接:

[1] 2019-07-07,有关 Geoffrey W. A. Dummer 先生的网页

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1188470.html

[2] 2019-07-13,有关 Mervin Joe Kelly 先生的网页

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1189385.html

[3] 2023-07-30,[“被”命题作文] “模拟计算”;“串音”、“半电路、半电磁场”电路

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1397241.html

[4] 2019-07-14,有关集成电路 Integrated Circuit 的网页

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1189467.html

[5] 2019-07-01,[请教] 量子集成电路、量子芯片 Quantum Chip 今后30年内的实用前景?

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1187623.html

[6] 2021-08-10,[求证] ASML 腾飞的技术原因是什么?【immersion system】

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1299147.html

[7] 2022-09-24, 《信息革命的技术源流》第三轮阅读:创新真难!

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1356669.html

[8] 2019-07-10,电路概念《互容》汇报后记

https://blog.sciencenet.cn/blog-107667-1188921.html

                                                    

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