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[转载]Sous-vide 真空低温烹饪法

已有 8563 次阅读 2011-2-16 09:21 |系统分类:科普集锦|关键词:color| color |文章来源:转载

Sous-vide
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Sous-vide cooking

Sous-vide (pronounced /suːˈviːd/), French for "under vacuum",[1] is a method of cooking food sealed in airtight plastic bags in a water bath[2] for a long time—72 hours is not unusual—at an accurately determined temperature much lower than normally used for cooking, typically around 60 °C or 140 °F. The intention is to maintain the integrity of ingredients.

Contents
// [edit] History

The method, first described by Sir Benjamin Thompson (Count Rumford) in 1799, was re-discovered by American and French engineers in the mid-1960s as an industrial food preservation method.[3] The method was adopted by Georges Pralus in 1974 for the Restaurant Troisgros (of Pierre and Michel Troigros) in Roanne, France. He discovered that when foie gras was cooked in this manner it kept its original appearance, did not lose excess amounts of fat and had better texture.[3] Another pioneer in the science of sous-vide is Bruno Goussault, who further researched the effects of temperature on various foods and became well-known for training top chefs in the method. As Chief Scientist of Cuisine Solutions, Goussault thoroughly developed the parameters of cooking times and temperatures for different foods.[3]

Until the advent in the twentieth century of accurate ways of measuring and controlling temperature, and knowledge of pathogens and pasteurisation, sous vide could not be a practical or safe technique.

[edit] Essential features

The primary feature of sous-vide is the use of temperatures much lower than for conventional cooking. The exclusion of air is secondary: it allows cooked food to be stored, still sealed and refrigerated, for considerable times, useful for the catering industry but less so for domestic use; and it excludes oxygen from food that requires long cooking and is susceptible to oxidation, e.g., fat on meat which may become rancid with prolonged exposure to air[4].

Prolonged cooking of eggs[5] in the shell at low temperatures, for example, is usually included in the category of sous-vide, although no vacuum is involved.

[edit] Modern use

The sous-vide method is used in several gourmet restaurants under Heston Blumenthal,[6] Kevin Sousa,[7] Paul Bocuse, Michael Carlson,[8] Thomas Keller, Ferran Adrià, Joël Robuchon, Alessandro Stratta, Charlie Trotter, Michael Mina and other chefs. Sous-vide has become a common feature on television cooking shows. It has also been used to quickly produce significant quantities of meals for hurricane evacuees.[9]

Non-professional cooks are also beginning to use sous-vide cooking.[10] Initially, enthusiasts used laboratory-grade thermal immersion circulators, often bought used on eBay and requiring very careful cleaning, even then not being recommended for kitchen use[11]. Beginning in 2008, Auber Instruments and Fresh Meals Solutions[12] made available comparatively inexpensive, yet highly accurate PID controllers with an attached thermocouple probe that could be used to control a commercial rice cooker, slow cooker, electric stock pot, or similar apparatus. In late 2009 the Sous Vide Supreme sous-vide machine (which does not circulate the cooking water) and Addélice swid[13] immersion circulator, both intended for home use and much cheaper than laboratory-standard equipment at a few hundred US dollars, went on sale. Other relatively inexpensive food-grade immersion circulators have become available.

People experimenting with sous-vide techniques have found that the use of an insulated container such as a beer cooler filled with water a little warmer than needed as checked with an accurate thermometer, and ziploc bags with the air sucked out to package the food for cooking, can produce much the same effect for a much lower price.[14] They recommend adding more insulation in the lid of the cooler to reduce the time spent monitoring and adjusting temperature.

[edit] Temperature control

The degree of accuracy and constancy of cooking temperature required varies with the food cooked. In some cases it is not critical; a 15 mm-thick piece of fish will cook in 17 to 18 minutes at any temperature from 44 °C (111 °F) to 61 °C (142 °F)[4]; such food can be cooked in a switched-off slow cooker filled with hot water and a thermometer. But for an egg, which has proteins that coagulate at different temperatures, it is much more critical[15].

[edit] Cooking times

Times vary considerably. A thin cut of fish may cook in a few minutes. Some otherwise tough cuts of meat, for example beef brisket and short ribs, benefit greatly from very long (48 to 72 hours) sous vide cooking at medium-rare temperatures of around 131 °F (55 °C), but the enzymes in chicken, and particularly fish, turn the food into mush after much shorter times.

Cooking time is often not at all critical, within limits, as the temperature is not high enough to change the nature of the food rapidly[16]. For example fish, which becomes dry very quickly if cooked conventionally for a little longer than necessary, will remain in perfect condition for a significant time before degrading.

The time and temperature to pasteurise food may be longer than required to make it palatable, although cooking for the longer time will not impair the food. Pasteurisation is not always essential for safety if fresh uncontaminated food is cooked and eaten immediately; fresh raw foods such as sushi and steak tartare are widely eaten without ill effects.

[edit] Safety

Food safety is a function of both time and temperature; a temperature usually considered insufficient to render food safe may be perfectly safe if maintained for long enough[4].

Clostridium botulinum bacteria can grow in food in the absence of oxygen and produce the deadly botulinum toxin, so sous-vide cooking must be performed under carefully controlled conditions to avoid botulism poisoning.[17] Generally speaking, food that is heated and served within four hours is considered safe, but meat that is cooked for longer to tenderize must reach a temperature of at least 131 °F (55 °C) within four hours and then be kept there, in order to pasteurize the meat. Pasteurization kills the botulism bacteria, but the possibility of hardy botulism spores surviving and reactivating once cool remains a concern as with many preserved foods, however processed. For that reason, Baldwin's treatise specifies precise chilling requirements for "cook-chill", so that the botulism spores do not have the opportunity to grow or propagate.

Extra precautions need to be taken for food to be eaten by people with compromised immunity. Women eating food cooked sous vide while pregnant may expose themselves to risk to themselves and/or their fetus and thus may choose to be more careful than usual.

真空低温烹饪法 - 由来

真空低温烹饪法真空低温烹饪法

1974年法国三星厨师Pierre Troisgros的初衷是以此减少鹅肝的重量和水分的流失,他成功地使鹅肝的重量在烹饪后只减少5%。同年,Brouno Goussault开始用真空低温烹饪来处理牛肉。而现在真空低温烹饪成为高级西餐厅处理肉类、鱼类的主流,同时也可以处理蔬菜和水果。 [1]

真空低温烹饪法 - 操作

将食物用抽真空的办法包装,或保鲜膜密实包装,然后放入料理机以65度左右的低温烹饪食物,不同的食物所用的温度和时间有所不同。真空低温烹饪所必须的是两台机器,恒温式低温料理机和真空密封机。 [1]

真空低温烹饪法 - 优点

最低程度地减少水分和重量的流失
保留食物的原味和香料的香味
保留食物的颜色
减少食盐的使用,或者可以完全不用
保留食物的营养成分,分离事物原汁和清水
比蒸、煮更能保留维他命成分
不需要油或者只需要极少的油
保证每次烹饪的结果都是一样的
真空低温烹饪可以最大程度地使厨房进行提前准备,因为经过真空低温烹饪食物可以再次冰冻或冷藏,需要的时候再次进行加热。它的操作优点还表现在:
 最小程度地减少浪费                                                    
最小程度地减少重量的流失以控制成品的重量
就算是普通的肉类也能极大地提高口感
剩余部分可以冷藏
比烤箱和煤气灶节省能源
能减低厨房的油烟污染
不同的食物能通过单独包装同时烹饪
不需要特别的厨师,人人都可以操作并到达理想的效果
赢得更多的准备时间 [1]

真空低温烹饪法 - 食物
食物温度

真空低温烹饪的温度原则上来说应该等于或大于65度,以进行杀菌。因为细菌的生存的理想温度是4-65度。而且真空低温烹饪最好不要超过70度,以减少水分和口味的流失。但是不同的食物所要求的温度和时间是不同的。[1]

列举分子料理大师Thomas Keller所给出的真空低温烹饪部分食物温度时间对比表,他的菜式都是通过了美国食品卫生管理局的检查的,应该都是安全的。当然,选材料的时候应该尽量选好的。

西冷牛排 59.5度 45分钟 
鸡腿 64度 1小时 
鸭胸 60.5度 25分钟 
羊排60.5度 35分钟 
猪里脊 80度 8小时 
猪其他 82.2度 12小时 
鹌鹑 64度 1小时 
小牛牛排 61度 30分钟 
鹅肝 68度 25分钟 
吞拿鱼 59.5度 13分钟 
三文鱼59.5度 11分钟 
龙虾 59.5度 15分钟 
普通鱼类 62度 12分钟 

食物冷藏

关于冷藏,进行真空低温烹饪前的食物要冷藏于3度或以下,进行真空低温烹饪后的食物要冷藏在1度或以下,如果3日不用的,要冷冻。

真空低温烹饪法 - 由来
真空低温烹饪法真空低温烹饪法

1974年法国三星厨师Pierre Troisgros的初衷是以此减少鹅肝的重量和水分的流失,他成功地使鹅肝的重量在烹饪后只减少5%。同年,Brouno Goussault开始用真空低温烹饪来处理牛肉。而现在真空低温烹饪成为高级西餐厅处理肉类、鱼类的主流,同时也可以处理蔬菜和水果。 [1]

真空低温烹饪法 - 操作

将食物用抽真空的办法包装,或保鲜膜密实包装,然后放入料理机以65度左右的低温烹饪食物,不同的食物所用的温度和时间有所不同。真空低温烹饪所必须的是两台机器,恒温式低温料理机和真空密封机。 [1]

真空低温烹饪法 - 优点

最低程度地减少水分和重量的流失
保留食物的原味和香料的香味
保留食物的颜色
减少食盐的使用,或者可以完全不用
保留食物的营养成分,分离事物原汁和清水
比蒸、煮更能保留维他命成分
不需要油或者只需要极少的油
保证每次烹饪的结果都是一样的
真空低温烹饪可以最大程度地使厨房进行提前准备,因为经过真空低温烹饪食物可以再次冰冻或冷藏,需要的时候再次进行加热。它的操作优点还表现在:
 最小程度地减少浪费                                                    
最小程度地减少重量的流失以控制成品的重量
就算是普通的肉类也能极大地提高口感
剩余部分可以冷藏
比烤箱和煤气灶节省能源
能减低厨房的油烟污染
不同的食物能通过单独包装同时烹饪
不需要特别的厨师,人人都可以操作并到达理想的效果
赢得更多的准备时间 [1]

真空低温烹饪法 - 食物
食物温度

真空低温烹饪的温度原则上来说应该等于或大于65度,以进行杀菌。因为细菌的生存的理想温度是4-65度。而且真空低温烹饪最好不要超过70度,以减少水分和口味的流失。但是不同的食物所要求的温度和时间是不同的。[1]

列举分子料理大师Thomas Keller所给出的真空低温烹饪部分食物温度时间对比表,他的菜式都是通过了美国食品卫生管理局的检查的,应该都是安全的。当然,选材料的时候应该尽量选好的。

西冷牛排 59.5度 45分钟 
鸡腿 64度 1小时 
鸭胸 60.5度 25分钟 
羊排60.5度 35分钟 
猪里脊 80度 8小时 
猪其他 82.2度 12小时 
鹌鹑 64度 1小时 
小牛牛排 61度 30分钟 
鹅肝 68度 25分钟 
吞拿鱼 59.5度 13分钟 
三文鱼59.5度 11分钟 
龙虾 59.5度 15分钟 
普通鱼类 62度 12分钟 

食物冷藏

关于冷藏,进行真空低温烹饪前的食物要冷藏于3度或以下,进行真空低温烹饪后的食物要冷藏在1度或以下,如果3日不用的,要冷冻。
[edit] References

  1. ^ "sous-vide". Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Random House, Inc. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/sous-vide. Retrieved 2007-12-14. 
  2. ^ http://sousvideaustralia.com/products/instanta-sous-vide/
  3. ^ a b c Amanda Hesser (2005-08-14). "Under Pressure". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/14/magazine/14CRYOVAC.html. 
  4. ^ a b c Baldwin: A Practical Guide to Sous Vide Cooking
  5. ^ http://sousvideaustralia.com/2010/10/sous-vide-news-for-october/
  6. ^ J. Kenji Lopez-Alt (2009-10-26). "Sous-Vide Cooking with Heston Blumenthal". Serious Eats. http://www.seriouseats.com/2009/10/understanding-sous-vide-cooking-heston-blumenthal.html. Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  7. ^ China Millman (2010-11-11). "Kevin Sousa's long-awaited 'Salt of the Earth' exceeds high expectations". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/10315/1102269-242.stm. Retrieved 2010-11-11. 
  8. ^ Holly Huges; Charlie O'Malley (2009). "Schwa: Molecular Gastronomy in Chicago #3". Frommer's 500 Places for Food & Wine Lovers. Wiley Publishing, Inc.. ISBN 978-0-470-28775-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=OIClKIFehSAC&pg=PA117. 
  9. ^ Candy Sagon (2005-10-05). "Five-Star Food for 400: It All Starts in the Bag". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/04/AR2005100400271_pf.html. Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  10. ^ Julia Moskin (2009-12-08). "Sous Video Moves From Avant-Garde to the Countertop". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/12/09/dining/09sous.html. Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  11. ^ eBay guide: thermal immersion circulators for cooking
  12. ^ "Fresh Meal Solutions". http://Freshmealssolutions.com. 
  13. ^ "Addélice swid". http://www.swid.eu/en/. 
  14. ^ J. Kenji Lopez-Alt (2010-04-19). "Cook Your Meat in a Beer Cooler: The World's best (and Cheapest) Sous-Video Hack". Serious Eats. http://www.seriouseats.com/2010/04/cook-your-meat-in-a-beer-cooler-the-worlds-best-sous-vide-hack.html. Retrieved 2010-09-07. 
  15. ^ Sous vide egg
  16. ^ Beginning Sous Vide: Low Temperature Recipes and Techniques for Getting Started at Home
  17. ^ Hyytiä-Trees E, Skyttä E, Mokkila M, et al. (2000-01). "Safety evaluation of sous vide-processed products with respect to nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum by use of challenge studies and predictive microbiological models". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (1): 223–9. doi:10.1128/AEM.66.1.223-229.2000. PMID 10618228. PMC 91810. http://aem.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10618228. 


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