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水之魂12: 浮冰之力

已有 2507 次阅读 2012-9-7 11:37 |个人分类:水之魂|系统分类:科研笔记

The hidden force revolving water-ice density

 

The inter-electron-pair Coulomb repulsion and the segmental-thermodynamic-disparity of the master-slave-segmented O2-:H+/p–O2- (H) bond are shown to originate the density anomalies of water ice. Consistency between Raman measurements, MD computations, and modeliing expectations revealed the following: In the liquid (I) and solid (III) phases, the softer non-bond “:” serves as the “master” (of lower specific heat, see below) that contracts largely and meanwhile forces the stiffer real-bond “-” as “slave” into Coulomb-repulsion-driven slight elongation, leading to the O2-:H+/p–O2- cooling contraction and the seemingly normal cooling densification; at transition phase (II), the master-slave swap roles, resulting in the O2-:H+/p–O2- freezing elongation and volume expansion. The O2-:H+/p–O2- of ice is longer than that of water, and therefore, ice floats. In addition, angle relaxation also contributes to the volume change during the process of relaxation.



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