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盘点全球生物安全顶级实验室(BSL4, P4) 精选

已有 21292 次阅读 2014-8-14 03:41 |个人分类:乱弹杂谈|系统分类:观点评述|关键词:BSL4,,P4| BSL4

  近日埃博拉疫情的日益严峻,美国疾控中心和世界卫生组织都将埃博拉疫情响应升至最高级别,这也使媒体对埃博拉病毒关注的目光,转向研究埃博拉病毒的利器、也几乎是必备神器¾生物安全4级实验室,生物安全实验室共分4(Biosafety Level 1-4), 生物安全4级实验室又常被称为P4实验室,这个P可不是个屁,是指Pathogen(病原) or Protection(保护)。说生物安全4级实验室是生物安全顶级实验室,不仅仅是指生物安全方面是顶级的,最高的,其造价也是最贵的,因此,数量很少,即使是在全球范围内,生物安全4级实验室也只有56个,这还包括一些正在建设中的(参见下表)。


序号       名   字     位   置建设时间        说   明

1Virology  Laboratory of the Queensland Department of HealthAustralia,  Queensland, Coopers Plains  
2Korea  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC)Osong,  Cheongwon county, North Chungcheong province, South Korea2013 
3University  of Queensland - Sir Albert Sakzewski Virus Research Centre (SASVRC) Royal  Women's Hospital Brisbane P3 (BL3)Australia,  Queensland, Herston  
4Australian  Animal Health LaboratoryAustralia,  Victoria, Geelong  
5National  High Security LaboratoryAustralia,  Victoria, North Melbourne National  High Security Laboratory Operates under the auspice of the Victoria  Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory.
6Republican  Research and Practical Center for Epidemiology and MicrobiologyBelarus,  Minsk Department  of Molecular Epidemiology & Innovational Biotechnologies
7National  Microbiology LaboratoryCanada,  Manitoba, Winnipeg Located  at the Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health, it is jointly  operated by the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Food  Inspection Agency.
8Wuhan  Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of SciencesChina,  Hubei, Wuhan2003Wuhan  Institute of Virology already hosts a BSL-3 laboratory. A distinct BSL-4  facility is currently being built based on P4 standards, the original  technology for confinement developed by France. It will be the first at level  4 in China, under the direction of Shi Zhengli.
9Biological  Defense CenterCzech  Republic, Pardubice, Těchonín1971,  rebuilt 2003-2007Located  at the Centrum biologické ochrany (Biological Defense Center)[13]
10Laboratoire  P4 Jean MérieuxFrance,  Rhône-Alpes, Lyon######Jean  Mérieux laboratory is a co-operation between the Pasteur Institute and  INSERM. Note that in France, it is P4 for Pathogen or Protection level 4.
11Centre  International de Recherches Médicales de FrancevilleGabon This  facility is operated by a research organization supported by both Gabonese  (mainly) and French governments, and is West Africa's only P4 lab (BSL-4).
12Robert  Koch InstituteGermany,  Berlin The  facility was licenced for construction by City of Berlin on November 30,  2008.
13Bernhard  Nocht Institute for Tropical MedicineGermany,  Hamburg  
14Friedrich  Loeffler Institute on the Isle of RiemsGermany,  Isle of Riems (Greifswald)2010Deals  especially with virology
15Philipps  University of MarburgGermany,  Marburg2008The  facility is licenced to work with genetically modified organisms
16High  Security Animal Disease Laboratory (HSADL)India,  Bhopal1998This  facility deals especially to zoonotic organisms and emerging infectious  disease threats.
17Centre  for Cellular and Molecular BiologyIndia,  Hyderabad2009National  Bio-Safety Level-4 Containment Facility for Human Infectious Diseases &  Clinical Research Facility in Regenerative Medicine.
18All  India Institute of Medical SciencesIndia,  New Delhi1993Conducts  studies on major pathogenic organisms. Has contributed in discovering new  strains & vaccines.
19Microbial  Containment ComplexIndia,  Pune2012Bio-Safety  Level-IV Laboratory established by ICMR with support from Department of  Science & Technology
20Azienda  Ospedaliera Ospedale Luigi SaccoItaly,  Lombardy, Milan A  university hospital in Polo Universitario; it contains two special vehicles  for transporting infectious persons.
21Istituto  Nazionale Malattie InfettiveItaly,  Lazio, Rome This  facility, (trans.) National Institute of Infectious Diseases, operates within  the Lazzaro Spallanzani Hospital.
22National  Institute for Infectious DiseasesJapan,  Tokyo, Musashimurayama Located  at National Institute for Infectious Diseases, Department of Virology I; this  lab has the potential of operating as a BSL-4, however it is limited to  perform work on only BSL-3 agents due to opposition from local residents and  communities.
23Institute  of Physical and Chemical ResearchJapan,  Ibaraki, Tsukuba This  is a non-operating BSL-4 facility.
24Netherlands  National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM)Netherlands,  Bilthoven2009 
25Cantacuzino  Microbiological Research Institute (INCDMI)Romania,  Bucharest  
26"Dr.  Carol Davila" Central Military HospitalRomania,  Bucharest  
27State  Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTORRussia,  Novosibirsk Oblast, Koltsovo It  is one of two facilities in the world that officially hold smallpox. The  other Russian BSL-4 facilities have been dismantled.
28National  Institute for Communicable DiseasesSouth  Africa, Johannesburg National  Institute for Communicable Diseases of Special Pathogens Unit is one of only  two BSL-4 facilities in Africa but the only suit laboratory on the continent.
29Swedish  Institute for Communicable Disease ControlSweden,  Solna Swedish  Institute for Communicable Disease Control is Scandinavia's P4 facility.
30University  Hospital of GenevaSwitzerland  
31Spiez  LaboratorySwitzerland,  Spiez  
32Kwen-yang  Laboratory (昆陽實驗室) Center of Disease ControlTaiwan Part  of the Department of Health, Taiwan.
33Preventive  Medical Institute of ROC Ministry of National DefenseTaiwan  
34Health  Protection Agency's Centre for InfectionsUnited  Kingdom, Colindale Located  in the Viral Zoonosis unit.
35National  Institute for Medical ResearchUnited  Kingdom, London  
36Institute  for Animal HealthUnited  Kingdom, Pirbright  
37Institute  for Animal Health Compton LaboratoryUnited  Kingdom, Compton  
38Defence  Science and Technology LaboratoryUnited  Kingdom, Porton Down  
39Health  Protection AgencyUnited  Kingdom, Porton Down Special  Pathogens Reference Unit.
40Health  Protection AgencyUnited  Kingdom, Porton Down Botulism.
41Francis  Crick Institute[22]United  Kingdom, London Under  construction. The UKCMRI will not work on Human Hazard Group 4 agents.
42Centers  for Disease Control and PreventionUnited  States, Georgia, Atlanta Currently  operates in two buildings. One of two facilities in the world that officially  hold smallpox.
43Georgia  State UniversityUnited  States, Georgia, Atlanta Is  an older design "glovebox" facility.
44National  Bio and Agro-Defense Facility (NBAF), Kansas State UniversityUnited  States, Kansas, Manhattan Under  construction. Facility to be operated by the Department of Homeland Security,  and replace the Plum Island Animal Disease Center (which is not a BSL-4  facility). Planned to be operational by 2015, but likely delayed.
45National  Institutes of Health (NIH)United  States, Maryland, Bethesda Located  on the NIH Campus, it currently only operates with BSL-3 agents.
46Integrated  Research FacilityUnited  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick Under  construction. This facility will be operated by National Institute of Allergy  and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), it is planned to begin operating at 2009 at  the earliest.
47National  Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC)United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick Under  construction, it will be operated for the Department of Homeland Security.
48US  Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick1969Old  building
49US  Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID)United  States, Maryland, Fort Detrick2017?New  building, currently under construction
50National  Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory (NEIDL), Boston UniversityUnited  States, Massachusetts, Boston Under  construction by Boston University, building and staff training complete,  waiting for regulatory approval.
51NIAID  Rocky Mountain LaboratoriesUnited  States, Montana, Hamilton National  Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
52Kent  State University, Kent CampusUnited  States, Ohio, Kent Operates  as a clean lab at level 3 for training purposes. Scheduled for conversion to  a hot level 4 lab in response to a bioterrorism event in the USA.
53Galveston  National Laboratory, National Biocontainment FacilityUnited  States, Texas, Galveston Opened  in 2008, facility is operated by the University of Texas Medical Branch.[23]
54Shope  LaboratoryUnited  States, Texas, Galveston Operated  by the University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB).
55Texas  Biomedical Research InstituteUnited  States, Texas, San Antonio The  only privately owned BSL-4 lab in the US.
56Division  of Consolidated Laboratory ServicesUnited  States, Virginia, Richmond This  facility is part of the Department of General Services of the Commonwealth of  Virginia. so called "surge" BSL-4 capacity.    

(表中内容参考http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biosafety_level#Biosafety_level_4 制作)

  如上表所示,56个生物安全顶级实验室遍布世界五大洲,其中非洲大陆只有两个,分别位于南非和加蓬。单论国家而言,美国最多,有15个,其中包括一个正在建设中的、隶属军队的实验室,还包括一个归私人所有的P4实验室(位于Texas Biomedical Research Institute,德州生物医学研究所),该P4实验室的私人属性(而非归国家所有)恐怕不仅在美国绝无仅有,恐怕在世界范围内都是独一无二的。    

      从上表可以看出,我国唯一的一个P4实验室,位于中科院武汉病毒所。仅仅这一个独苗,目前尚且没有建成,俗话说十年磨一剑,但是这个已经磨了11年目前还不知何时才能正式磨成。根据《第一财经日报》的报道,这个中国第一个也是唯一一个P4实验室,前期基础建设投入约2亿……武汉P4实验室目前还没有建成,硬件和软件方面都需要推进。…….如果顺利的话,到今年年底会有一个阶段性的成果,但是距离能够使用还有一段距离。(参考:http://tech.sina.com.cn/d/2014-08-06/01449537048.shtml)现在的埃博拉疫情相信会推动该实验室的建设速度。从报道和上表的内容可以看出,我国目前尚没有独立设计、建设P4实验室的能力,核心技术采用的是法国的。

 值得一提的是,我国目前人口全球第一、GDP和研发经费全球第二,但是居然连一个已经建成使用的P4实验室都没有,应该说这在国际上都是很、说不过去的事情,穷如非洲的加蓬都有一个(当然这个也是由法国援建和参与管理的),连经济和总体科技水平都不如中国的印度都有4P4实验室,即使是被许多人贬称为弹丸之地的中国台湾都有2P4实验室,当然虽然我们都政治正确地说是中国台湾,人家的两个实验室其实和中国大陆没有半毛钱关系,自己根本用不上。

 需要说明的是, 除了埃博拉病毒必须要在P4实验室操作外,还有其他一些高致病性病毒,如马尔堡病毒,拉萨(Lassa)病毒, 克里米亚- 刚果出血热病毒, 玻利维亚和阿根廷出血热病毒以及其它出血热病毒等。

 后记:本文欢迎转载,转载请注明作者和出处。



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