蒋高明的博客分享 http://blog.sciencenet.cn/u/蒋高明 中国科学院植物研究所研究员,从事植物生态学研究

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中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之四十八:中国环保NGO

已有 361 次阅读 2018-6-1 06:27 |个人分类:生态科普|系统分类:科普集锦| 环保NGO, 公众参与, 生态文明建设, 连载

 

中国生态文明建设(中英对照)连载之四十八

中国环保NGO

本书由北京语言大学出版社出版,2014(教学课件光盘版) 作者 蒋高明

4.5.4中国环保NGO

4.5.4 Environmental NGOs in China

 

  我的办公室里,有一本外文出版社用中英两种语言出版的书《环保非政府组织的中国故事》,作者是新京报的评论部主任曹保印。这本书介绍了一些比较活跃的中国NGO组织(如自然之友、绿家园、地球之友等)负责人的故事,因为我是中国环境文化促进会的理事,所以也把我做过的一些环保工作写了进去。中国环境文化促进会由热心参与环境保护工作的名人组成,环保部副部长潘岳先生任理事长,成龙、姜昆等任副理事长,北京大学、中国环境科学院等单位的一些专家为理事,我只是其中之一。

In my office, there is a book published by the Foreign Languages Press in both English and Chinese entitled Stories of China’s Environmental NGOs, written by Cao Baoyin, Director of the Commentary Department of Beijing News. This book narrates stories of responsible persons of some active NGOs in China (such as Friends of Nature, Green Earth, and Friends of the Earth, etc.). Because I am director of China Environmental Culture Promotion Association (CECPA), some of my experience in environmental protection is also included. CECPA is made of people who are devoted practitioners of environmental protection, with Pan Yue, deputy minister of the Ministry of Environmental Protection as the president of the Association, Jackie Chang and Jiang Kun as vice presidents. Experts from Peking University and Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences and other units are directors of the Association. I am one of the directors.

 

环保NGO就是环保民间组织,因为国际上NGO的缩写用得非常广泛,所以这个字母词也进入了汉语。环保NGO以环境保护为主旨,不以营利为目的,不具有行政权力。他们的主要工作是为社会提供环境公益性服务。

Environmental NGOs are non-governmental organizations for environmental protection. NGO, an abbreviation for Non-Governmental Organization, is widely used internationally and was introduced to China as well. An environmental NGO takes environmental protection not profit as its main aim, and it does not have any administrative power. Their main job is to provide environmental public services for society.

 

19785月,中国环境科学学会成立,这是中国最早成立的环保民间组织,由政府部门发起成立。1991年,辽宁省盘锦市黑嘴鸥保护协会注册成立。1994年,著名的“自然之友”在北京成立。此后,中国各类环保民间组织相继成立起来。

In May 1978, the Chinese Society for Environmental Sciences was founded by the government as China’s first environmental NGO. In 1991, Saunders Gull Conservation Society of Panjin City of Liaoning Province was established. In 1994, the famous “Friends of Nature” was established in Beijing. Since then, various environmental NGOs have emerged.

 

现在,中国有各类环保民间组织2768家,从业人员总数为22.4万人。其中全职人员6.9万,兼职人员15.5万。中国环保民间组织的突出特点是:从业人员年轻人多,学历层次高,奉献精神强,影响面广。环保NGO这个字母词被广泛使用,可能就和从业者年轻、学历层次高有关系。从业者中,80%左右是30岁以下的青年人,50%以上拥有大学以上学历,约92%是志愿者,不计任何酬劳。

Now, there are 2,768 Chinese environmental NGOs in China, and the total number of employees is 224,000, of which 69,000 are full-time and 155,000 part-time staff. The salient features of Chinese environmental NGOs are: young professionals, high level of education, strong dedication spirit, and wide influence. The popularity of the title of environmental NGO may just derive from these young professionals and their high level of education. Among the staff, about 80% are young people under 30, over 50% have a college degree or above, and about 92% are volunteers receiving no remuneration.

 

中国环保民间组织有4种类型:(1)由政府部门发起成立的环保民间组织,如中华环保联合会、中华环保基金会、中国环境文化促进会,以及各地环境科学学会、环保产业协会、野生动物保护协会等;(2)由民间自发组成的环保民间组织,如自然之友、地球村,以及以非营利方式从事环保活动的其他民间机构等;(3)学生环保社团及其联合体,包括学校内部的环保社团、多个学校环保社团联合体等;(4)国际环保民间组织的驻华机构。

Chinese environmental NGOs come in four types: (1) those initiated by the government department, such as All-China Environment Federation, China Environmental Protection Foundation, and China Environmental Culture Promotion Association, as well as various societies for environmental sciences, associations of environmental protection industry, and wildlife conservation associations; (2) self-sponsored NGOs, such as Friends of Nature, Global Village, and other non-profitable private institutions for environmental activities; (3) student environmental protection societies, including environmental protection societies within a school, or consortiums of these societies from several schools; (4) agencies of international environmental NGOs resident in China.

 

这些环保民间组织已经成为推动中国环保事业发展的不可或缺的重要力量,为中国生态文明建设做出了很大的贡献。他们组织环保公益活动,出版环保书籍,发放宣传品,举办环保讲座,组织培训,参与媒体报道,在提高公众环境意识方面发挥了很大的作用。环保民间组织的活动很多,我在这里举几个有代表性的例子:

These environmental NGOs have become indispensable forces for promoting China’s environmental protection and have made great contributions to the building of the ecological civilization. They have organized environmental charity activities, published environmental books, distributed advertising materials, organized environmental seminars and trainings, and participated in media reports, and so on. They have done a great deal in raising public awareness of environmental protection. As their activities are numerous, I just raise a few typical examples here:

3 中国环保NGO代表性活动及其影响

 

年代

主要事件

NGO

社会影响

效果

1995

云南金丝猴保护行动

自然之友

媒体详细、持久的报道

建立金丝猴保护区

1999

污染受害者法律咨询热线

中国政法大学污染受害者法律帮助中心

1万多名污染受害者得到法律服务

50多起环境污染案件受害者胜诉

2000

环境教育流动教学车——“羚羊车”

自然之友

200余所学校

2万多名中小学生感受自然、关注环境

2002

北京顺义湿地开发高尔夫球场

绿网

北京平原地区唯一湿地得以保护

成功阻止开发活动

2005

圆明园防渗工程事件

自然之友

绿家园

媒体大量报道,全国首届公众环保听证会举行

环保总局责令圆明园防渗工程整改

2006

保护母亲河行动

多家环保NGO联合发起

857万人次参加

环保志愿者服务形成知名品牌

 

 

 

 

 

Table 3 Representative examples and their effects of China’s environmental NGOs

Year

Event

NGO

Social   influence

Effect

1995

Golden   Monkey Conservation Action in Yunnan

Friends of   Nature

Detailed and   long-lasting coverage by media

 

 

Establishment   of protected areas for golden monkeys

 

1999

Legal   consultation hotline for pollution victims

Center for   Legal Assistance to Pollution Victims in China University of Political   Science and Law

more than   10,000 pollution victims received legal assistance

victims of   more than 50 pollution cases won the lawsuits

2000

Environmental   education mobile van—“antelope van”

Friends of   Nature

more than   200 schools

More than   twenty thousand schoolchildren get the feel the nature and care about   environment

 

2002

Golf course   developed on wetland in Shunyi, Beijing

CPT Pilot   Zone

the   successful protection of the only wetland in Beijing’s flat

 areas

successful   prevention of  undesirable exploitation

2005

Anti-seepage   project in the Old Summer Palace

Friends of   Nature

Green Earth   Volunteers

extensive   media coverage and the first national public hearing on environmental issues

 

State   Environmental Protection Administration order the project to rectify and   reform

2006

Mother river   protection activity

several NGOs

8.57 million   people participated

environmental   volunteer service gains popularity

保护生态环境,保护生物多样性,为子孙后代、也为当代留下更大的发展空间,中国环保民间组织付出了不懈的努力,也取得了一定的成绩,成为官方环保工作之外的一支重要力量。记得有一次,环保部副部长潘岳召集北京主要环保NGO的负责人在环保部开会。会上,潘副部长说:“谁是我们的敌人?环境污染的制造者是我们的敌人;谁是我们的朋友?环保NGO是我们的朋友。”足见民间环保力量是不可缺少的。

In order to protect the environment and the biological diversity, so as to leave more room for development for future generations, Chinese environmental NGOs have made unremitting efforts and have obtained certain achievements. They have become an important force outside official environmental protection work. I remember that once Pan Yue, deputy minister of the Ministry of Environmental Protection, convened the responsible persons of some major environmental NGOs to have a meeting in the Ministry of Environmental Protection. He stated: “Who are our enemies? Environmental polluters. Who are our friends? Environmental NGOs.” His statement demonstrates that the power of non-governmental environmental organizations is indispensable.

 

中国环保NGO,代表着普通民众的意愿和行动。环保民间组织的从业者中,年轻人居多,代表了中国未来的环保力量。活跃的环保民间组织的活动,不仅切实地推进了中国的生态环境保护事业,而且昭示了一个光明的未来。中国的广大民众,中国的未来一代,一定会越来越关注环保,越来越尊重自然,中国的生态文明建设一定会越来越有成效,建设美丽中国的中国梦,将不再是梦想。

China’s environmental NGOs represent the will and actions of Chinese ordinary people. The majority of young people in environmental NGOs embody China’s future environmental force. Animated activities of environmental NGOs not only effectively promote the cause of China’s ecological and environmental protection, but also demonstrate a bright future. The broad masses of Chinese people and their future generations will become increasingly concerned about environmental protection and show more respect for the nature. China’s construction of ecological civilization will bear more fruit, and to build a beautiful China is not just a dream.

 

 




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